Rhododendrons in Nepal


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  1. Rhododendron anthopogon D. Don
  2. Rhododendron anthopogon D. Don var. hypenanthum (Balf. f.) Cullen → Rhododendron hypenanthum Balf. f.
  3. Rhododendron arboreum Sm.
  4. Rhododendron arboreum Sm. var. album Wall. → Rhododendron arboreum Sm. var. roseum Lindl.
  5. Rhododendron arboreum Sm. var. cinnamomeum (Wall. ex G. Don) Lindl.
  6. Rhododendron barbatum Wall. ex G. Don
  7. Rhododendron barbatum f. imberbe
  8. Rhododendron camelliiflorum Hook. f.
  9. Rhododendron campanulatum D. Don
  10. Rhododendron campanulatum var. wallichiiRhododendron wallichii Hook. f.
  11. Rhododendron campylocarpum Hook. f.
  12. Rhododendron ciliatum Hook. f.
  13. Rhododendron cinnabarinum Hook. f.
  14. Rhododendron cowanianum Davidian
  15. Rhododendron dalhousiaeRhododendron dalhousieae Hook. f.
  16. Rhododendron epapillatum Balf. f. & R. E. Cooper → Rhododendron papillatum Balf. f. & R. E. Cooper
  17. Rhododendron falconeri Hook. f.
  18. Rhododendron fulgens Hook. f.
  19. Rhododendron glaucophyllum Rehder
  20. Rhododendron grande Wight
  21. Rhododendron griffithianum Wight
  22. Rhododendron hodgsonii Hook. f.
  23. Rhododendron lepidotum Wall. ex G. Don
  24. Rhododendron lepidotum var. elaeagnoides →  Rhododendron elaeagnoides Hook. f.
  25. Rhododendron lepidotum var. obovatum →  Rhododendron obovatum Hook. f.
  26. Rhododendron lindleyi T. Moore
  27. Rhododendron lowndesii Davidian
  28. Rhododendron nivale Hook. f.
  29. Rhododendron pendulum Hook. f.
  30. Rhododendron pumilum Hook. f.
  31. Rhododendron setosum D. Don
  32. Rhododendron thomsonii Hook. f.
  33. Rhododendron trichocladum Franch.
  34. Rhododendron trichocladum subsp. nepalense →  Rhododendron nepalense Voss
  35. Rhododendron triflorum Hook. f.
  36. Rhododendron vaccinioides Hook.
  37. Rhododendron virgatum Hook. f.
  38. Rhododendron wallichii Hook. f.
  39. Rhododendron wightii Hook. f.


Nepal Plant Web


  1. Adrian and Jimmy Storrs 1988 Trees and Shrubs of Nepal and the Himalayas Books Faith India ISBN 81-7303-098-7
  2. Polunin, Oleg and Adam Stainton 2013 Concise Flowers of the Himalaya (Oxford India Paperbacks) 9th Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-564414-X
  3. Raskoti, Bhakta B. and Rita Ale 2012 A Pictorial Guide to Himalayan Flowers of Nepal Himalayan Map House Ltd. ISBN:99933-47-99-6
  4. Shrestha, Tej Kumar, Sabina Shrestha and Atmaz Kumar Shrestha 2011 Himalayan Flowers, Trees and Animals Padma Karpo Translation Committee ISBN 978-9937-2-3541-9
  5. Stainton, Adam 2000 Flowers of the Himalaya: A Supplement (Oxford India Paperbacks) 7th Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-564415-8

Plant Reference

  1. Bajracharya, Sisshartha B., Peter A. Furley and Adrian C. Newton 2005 Effectiveness of community involvement in delivering conservation benefits to the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal Environmental Conservation 32 (3): 239–247
  2. Bhatta, Kuber Prasad and Ram Prasad Chaudhary 2009 Species diversity and distribution pattern of grassland and cultivated land Species in upper Manang, Nepal Trans-Himalayas Scientific World 7 (7) 76-79
  3. Buffa, Giorgio, Carlo Ferrari and Sandro Lovari 1998 The upper Subalpine vegetation of Sagarmatha National Park (Nepal) and its relationship with Himalayan tahr, musk deer and domestic yak. An outline. Top of the World environmental research: Mount Everest - Himalayan ecosystem
  4. Devkota, Mohan P. and Gerhard Glatzel 2005 Mistletoes of the Annapurna Conservation Area, Central Nepal Himalayas J. Japan Bot. 80 27-36
  5. Egan, Paul 2013 Laligurans Rhododendron Project Van Tienhoven Foundation
  6. Ghimire, Suresh K. and Yildiz Aumeeruddy-Thomas 2009Ethnobotanical classification and plant nomenclature system of high altitude agro-pastoralists in Dolpo, Nepal Botanica Orientalis – Journal of Plant Science 6: 56–68
  7. Hara, Hiroshi 1961 New or noteworthy flowering plants from Eastern Himalaya (1) J. Jap. Bot. 36: 75-80
  8. Hara, Hiroshi 1965 New or noteworthy flowering plants from Eastern Himalaya (4) J. Jap. Bot. 40 100-102
  9. IUCN Nepal 2010 Tinjure-Milke-Jaljale Rhododendron Conservation Area A strategy for sustainable development IUCN Nepal
  10. Joshi, Ananda Raj and Kunjani Joshi 2009 Plant diversity and Ethnobotanical notes on tree species of Syabru Village, Langtang National Park, Nepal Ethnobotanical Leaflets 13: 651-64
  11. Joshi, G. P. and M. P. Devkota 2010 Diversity, Host Range and Distribution of Mistletoes along Steep Altitudinal Gradient of Tribhuvan Highway, Central Nepal Our Nature 8 106-117
  12. Limbu, Dilkumar, Madan Koirala and Zhanhuan Shang 2012 A Checklist of Angiospermic Flora of Tinjure-Milke-Jaljale, Eastern Nepal Nepal Journal of Science and Technology 13 (2): 87-96
  13. O'Neill, Alexander Robert and Santosh Kumar Rana 2016 An ethnobotanical analysis of parasitic plants (Parijibi) in the Nepal Himalaya Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 12 14-28
  14. Panthi, Mohan P, Ram P Chaudhary and Ole R Vetaas 2007 Plant species richness and composition in a trans-Himalayan inner valley of Manang district, central Nepal HIMALAYAN JOURNAL OF SCIENCES 4 (6) 57-64
  15. Parajuli, A. V., D. Lamichhane and P. R. Tamrakar Forest genetic resources and management in Nepal – status, needs, challenges and actions required Working Paper for the Meeting of National Coordinators of the Asia Pacific Forest Genetic Resources Programme
  16. Poudel, S. 2003 Vegetation and prominent flora from Begnash Tal to Tara Hill, Annapurna Conservation Area Project, Kaski district. Himalayan Journal of Sciences 1 (1) 43-46
  17. Shrestha, Mani Raj, Maan B. Rokaya and Suresh Kumar Ghimire 2006 A checklist of Trans-Himalayan dicot flora of Dolpo and its surrounding Region in northwest Nepal Scientific World 4 (4) 84-95
  18. Shrestha, Tirtha Bahadur 2001 Forest Diversity of Nepal's Protected Areas in the Mountains The Himalayan Review 32 25-28
  19. Thapa, D. 2010 Bio-diversity conservation in nepal Bibechana 6 31-36
  20. Wagner, Ariane, Monika Kriechbaum and Marcus A. Koch 2008 Applied Vulnerability Assessment of Useful Plants: A case study of Tibetan Medicinal Plants from Nepal Bot. Jahrb. sys. 127 (3) 1-29

Rhododendron Reference

A - M

  1. Argent, G. C. G. 1985 Vireya Rhododendrons in Borneo RBG Edinb. 43
  2. Argent, George , Anthony Lamb, Anthea Phillipps, S Collenette 1988 Rhododendrons of Sabah Sabah Parks Pub.
  3. Argent, George, Anthony Lamb and Anthea Phillips 2007 The rhododendrons of Sabah Malaysian Borneo Natural History Publ. (Borneo) ISBN 983-812-111-8
  4. Argent, George 2008. A checklist of Philippine Ericaceae Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology 2: 40-46
  5. Argent, George and Yasper Michael Mambrasar 2019. Rhododendron widjajae (Ericaceae, section Schistanthe) a new species from Sulawesi Reinwardtia 18(1): 27‒30
  6. Bhattacharyya, Debjyoti 2011 Rhododendron Species and Their Uses with Special Reference to Himalayas – A Review Biological and Environmental Sciences 7 (1) 161-167
  7. Cai, Lei,Jens Neilsen, Zhi-Ling Dao and Yong-Pen Ma 2016 Rhododendron longipedicellatum (Ericaceae), a new species from Southeastern Yunnan, China Phytotaxa 282 (4): 296–300
  8. Chamberlain, D. F. 1982 A Revision of Rhododendron II: Subgenus Hymenanthes Notes from the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh 39 (2) 209-486
  9. Chamberlain, D. F. and Frank Doleshy 1987 Japanese members of Rhododendron subsection Pontica: Distribution and classification Journ. Jap. Bot. 62 8: 225-243
  10. Chen, Xiang, Laurie Consaul, Jiayong Huang, and Xun Chen 2010 New Taxa of Rhododendron (Ericaceae) from China Ann. Bot. Fennici 47 (5):397-402
  11. Chen, Xiang,Cheng-hua Yang, Hua Xie, Xun Chen 2012 A New Species of Rhododendron (Ericaceae) from China Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Botany 20 (5) 513-516
  12. Cheon, Kyeong-Seong, Akira Nakatsuka and Nobuo Kobayashi 2016 Mutant PI/GLO Homolog Confers the Hose-in-hose Flower Phenotype in Kurume Azaleas The Japanese Soc. for Hort. Sci 85 4 P8
  13. Cheon, Kyeong-Seong, Akira Nakatsuka, Keisuke Tasaki and Nobuo Kobayashi 2017 Long-lasting Corolla Cultivars in Japanese Azaleas: A Mutant AP3/DEF Homolog Identified in Traditional Azalea Cultivars from More Than 300 Years Ago Front Plant Sci. 8: 2239.
  14. Cheon, Kyeong-Seong, Akira Nakatsuka, Yu Gobara and Nobuo Kobayashi 2017 Mutant RoPI-1 allele-based marker development for selection of the hose-in-hose flower phenotype in Rhododendron obtusum cultivars Euphytica 213 3: P.8
  15. Christiaens, Annelies 2014 Factors affecting flower development and quality in Rhododendron simsii PhD Thesis, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium
  16. Chung, Jeng-Der, Tsan-Piao Lin, Yu-Ling Chen, Yu-Pin Cheng, Shih-Ying Hwang 2007 Phylogeographic study reveals the origin and evolutionary history of a Rhododendron species complex in Taiwan Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 42(1): 14–24
  17. Craven, L. A., L. A. Goetsch, B. D. Hall, G. K. Brown 2008 Classification of the Vireya group of Rhododendron (Ericaceae) Blumea 53 435-442
  18. Craven, L. A., F. Danet, J. F. Veldkamp, L. A. Goetsch and B. D. Hall 2011 Vireya Rhododendrons: their monophyly and classification (Ericaceae, Rhododendron section Schistanthe) Blumea 56 153-158
  19. Craven, L. A. 2011 Diplarche and Menziesia transferred to Rhododendron (Ericaceae) Blumea 56 33–35
  20. Craven L. A., F. Danet, J. F. Veldkamp, L. A. Goetsch, B. D. Hall 2011. Vireya Rhododendrons: their monophyly and classification (Ericaceae, Rhododendron sect. Schistanthe). Blumea 56: 153 –158.
  21. Craven, L. A. 2014 Three new species of, and realignments in, Rhododendron sect. Schistanthe (Ericaceae) Journal of the Adelaide Botanic Gardens 27 25–34
  22. Cullen, J. 1980 A Revision of Rhododendron I: Subgenus Rhododendron sections Rhododendron & Pogonanthum Notes from the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh 39 (1): 1-207
  23. Danet Frédéric 2012 Deux nouvelles espèces de Rhododendron L. section Schistanthe Schltr. (Ericaceae) de Nouvelle-Guinée Adansonia, sér. 3 34 (2): 343-351
  24. Georgian, Elizabeth, Zhendong Fang, Eve Emshwiller, Anna Pidgeon 2015 The pollination ecology of Rhododendron floccigerum Franchet (Ericaceae) in Weixi, Yunnan Province, China J. Pollination Ecology 16(11) 72-81
  25. Giriraj, Amarnath, M. Irfan-Ullah, B. R. Ramesh, P. V. Karunakaran,Anke Jentsch and M. S. R. Murthy 2008 Mapping the potential distribution of Rhododendron arboreum Sm. ssp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg (Ericaceae), an endemic plant using ecological niche modelling CURRENT SCIENCE 94 (12) 25 1605-1612
  26. Goetsch, Loretta, Andrew J. Eckert and Benjamin D. Hall 2005 The molecular systematics of Rhododendron (Ericaceae): A Phylogeny Based Upon RPB2 Gene Sequences Systematic Botany 30 (3): 616–626
  27. Hang, Nguyen Thi Thu, Ikuo Miyajima, Kenji Ureshino, Jun-ichiro Masuda and Hiroshi Okubo 2010 Comparison of Morphological Characteristics of Rhododendron simsii Planch. distributed in Vietnam and Japan J. Fac. Agr., Kyushu Univ. 55(2): 233–237
  28. Hang, Nguyen Thi Thu, Ikuo Miyajima, Kenji Ureshino, Nobuo Kobayashi, Yuji Kurashige, Toshiro Matsui and Hiroshi Okubo 2011 Anthocyanins of Wild Rhododendron simsii Planch. Flowers in Vietnam and Japan J. Japan. Soc. Hort. Sci. 80 (2): 206–213
  29. Hara, Hiroshi 1936 Preliminary Report on the Flora of Southern Hidaka, Hokkaido (Yezo). XVI Bot. Mag. Tokyo 50 (598): 562-570
  30. Harmaja, Harri 2002 Rhododendron subulatum, comb. nova (Ericaceae) Annales Botanici Fennici 39 (3): 183-184
  31. Hart, Andrew, Kathleen Kron and Emily Gillespie 2017 Molecular phylogentic analysis of the north-temperate Labrador Teas (Ericaceae : Rhododendron subect. Ledum) suggests a complex genetic history J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 11 (1): 53–65
  32. Hatusima, Sumihiko 1949 New and noteworthy plants from southern Japan and the adjacent districts J. Jap. Bot. 24:81-87
  33. Heads, Michael 2003 Ericaceae in Malesia: vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology Telopea 10 (1): 311–449
  34. Honda, Masaji 1939 Nuntia ad Floram Japoniae. XXXIX Bot. Mag. Tokyo 53 (632): 333-334
  35. Huang, Chi-Chun, Kuo-Hsiang Hung, Chi-Chuan Hwang, Jao-Ching Huang, Hung-Du Lin, Wei-Kuang Wang, Pei-Yin Wu, Tsai-Wen Hsu and Tzen-Yuh Chiang 2011 Genetic population structure of the alpine species Rhododendron pseudochrysanthum sensu lato (Ericaceae) inferred from chloroplast and nuclear DNA BMC Evolutionary Biology 11:108
  36. Hyam, Roger 2010 Molecular and conventional data sets and the systematics of Rhododendron L. Subgenus Hymenanthes (Blume) K. Ph. D. of Koch University of Bristol 209 P
  37. Itabashi, Takeru, Kenji Ureshino and Akira Suzuki 2008 Plastid DNA inheritance of progenies from diallel cross among related evergreen Azalea species belonging to Series Kaempferia J. Japan. Soc. Hort. Sci. 77 (1): 88–93
  38. Jin, Xiao-Feng, Bing-Yang Ding, Shui-Hu Jin, Yue-Jiao Zhang and Cheng-Xin Fu 2007 Revision of some problematic taxa of Rhododendron sect. Tsutsusi (Ericaceae) from China Annales Botanici Fennici 44 18-24
  39. Jin, Xiao-Feng, Bing-yang Ding 2009 Rhododendron yunyianum (Ericaceae), a New Species from Fujian, China Annales Botanici Fennici 46 (3) 231-234
  40. Jin, Xiao-Feng, Bing-yang Ding, Yue-Jiao Zhang and De-yuan Hong 2010 A Taxonomic Revision Of Rhododendron subg. Tsutsusi sect. Brachycalyx (Ericaceae) Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 97: 163-190
  41. Jones, Jeff R., Thomas G. Ranney, Nathan P. Lynch and Stephen L. Krebs 2007 Ploidy Levels and Relative Genome Sizes of Diverse Species, Hybrids, and Cultivars of Rhododendron J. American Rhododendron Soc. 220-227
  42. Justice, Clive L. 1990 Observations on Peninsula Malaysia Rhododendrons Journal American Rhododendron Society vol. 44
  43. Kameyama, Yoshiaki, Yuji Isagi and Nobukazu Uakagoshi 2001 Patterns and levels of gene flow in Rhododendron metternichii var. hondoense revealed by microsatellite analysis Molecular Ecology 10 205–216
  44. Kobayashi, N. 2013 Evaluation and application of evergreen azalea resources of Japan Woody Ornamentals of the Moderate Zone 213-220
  45. Kobayashi, Nobuo, Kyoko Sugai, Tomoyuki Tsuji, Akira Nakatsuka 2017 Genetic Relationship of Rhododendron ripense Makino to Japanese Evergreen Azalea Cultivars Evaluated by SSR Markers J Plant Genet Breed 1: 101-103
  46. Koidzumi, Geniti 1932 Contributiones ad Cognitionem Florae Asiae Orientalis Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 11-33
  47. Kron, Kathleen A. 1993 A revision of Rhododendron section Pentanthera Edinburgh J. Bot. 50 (3): 249-363
  48. Kurashige, Yuji, Masaki Mine, Nobuo Kobayashi, Takashi Handa, Kenji Takayangi and Tomohisa Yukawa 1998 Investigation of Sectional Relationships in the Genus Rhododendron (Ericaceae) based on matK Sequences J. Jpn. Bot. 73: 143-154
  49. Kurita, Masahide 1978 Some Notes on the Rhododendron Plants from Japan: VI. Variation in Loculus of Ovary Journal of Geobotany 26 (1):6-8
  50. Limbu, Dilkumar, Madan Koirala and Zhanhuan Shang 2012 A Checklist of Angiospermic Flora of Tinjure-Milke-Jaljale, Eastern Nepal Nepal Journal of Science and Technology 13 (2): 87-96
  51. Liu Tang-shui and Tsan-iang Chuang 1960 New additions to the flora of Taiwan. (I) Quart. Journ. Taiwan Mus. 13(1,2): 63-66 / Ehretia lanyuensisRhododendron kawakamii var. flaviflorum
  52. Lu, Sheng-You, Chien-Fan Chen, Yu-Jen Lin and Sheng-Zehn Yang 2010 Rhododendron farrerae Tate ex Sweet (Ericaceae), a reconfirmed species in Taiwan. Taiwania 55(2) 180-185
  53. Ma, Yongpeng, Richard Ian Milne, Changqin Zhang and Junbo Yang 2010, Unusual patterns of hybridization involving a narrow endemic Rhododendron species (Ericaceae) in Yunnan, China American Journal of Botany 97 (10) 1749-1757
  54. Makino, Tomitarô 1893 Notes on Japanese Plants, XVIII Bot. Mag. Tokyo 7 (76): 133-135
  55. Makino, T. 1903 Observations on the Flora of Japan. (Continued from p. 152.) Bot. Mag. Tokyo 17 (200) 160-164
  56. Makino, T. 1904 Observations on the Flora of Japan (Continued from p. 76.) Bot. Mag. Tokyo 18 (209): 97-102
  57. Makino, Tomitarô 1917 A Contribution to the Knowledge of the Flora of Japan ( Continuecl from p. 18.) J. Jap. Bot. 1 (6): 19-22
  58. Makino, Tomitarô 1929 A Contribution to the Knowledge of the Flora of Japan (Continued from p. 48) J. Jap. Bot. 6 (1): 3-6
  59. Makino, Tomitarô 1931 A Contribution to the Knowledge of the Flora of Nippon (Continued from p. 18) J. Jap. Bot. 7 (8): 19-24
  60. Mao, A. A., M. Bhaumik, A. Paul, S. Bharali and M. L. Khan 2013 The new species Rhododendron mechukae A. A. Mao & A. Paul (Ericaceae) is described from India Edinburgh Journal of Botany 70(1) 57-60
  61. MacKay, M., G. Smith and S. E. Gardiner 2016 Analysis of geographic and taxonomic groups informs conservation of Rhododendron subgenus Vireya (Ericaceae) Blumea 61(3): 170–180
  62. Masahide, Kurita 1978 Some notes on the Rhododendron plants from Japan: VI. Variation in loculus of ovary J Geobot 26 (1): 6-8
  63. Maximowicz, C. J. 1870 Rhododendreae Asiae Orientalis. Mem. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pe´tersbourg Se´r. 7, 16: 1–53
  64. Menon, Shaily, Mohamed Latif Khan, Ashish Paul and A. Townsend Peterson 2012 Rhododendron Species in the Indian Eastern Himalayas: New Approaches to Understanding Rare Plant Species Distributions J. American Rhododendron Soc. 78-84
  65. Milne, Richard Ian 2004 Phylogeny and biogeography of Rhododendron subsection Pontica, a group with a tertiary relict distribution Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 33 (2): 329-401
  66. Milne, Richard I., Chantel Davies, Ruby Prickett, Lucy H. Inns and David F. Chamberlain 2010 Phylogeny of Rhododendron subgenus Hymenanthes based on chloroplast DNA markers: between-lineage hybridisation during adaptive radiation? Plant Syst Evol 285: 233–244
  67. Miyajima, Ikuo, Kayo Miyahara, Kenji Ureshino and Ayano Michishita 2001 Isozyme Variations of Six Evergreen Azalea Species Distributed in Kyushu, Japan J. Japan. Soc. Hort. Sci. 70 (4): 448-452

N - Z

  1. Nakai, Takenoshin 1921 Notulæ ad Plantas Japoniæ et Coreæ XXIV Bot. Mag. Tokyo 35 (416): 131-138
  2. Nakai, T. 1924 Abstract from T. Nakai:’Trees and shrubs indigenous in Japan proper Vol. I. (1922)’, with Additional Remarks on Some Species Bot. Mag. Tokyo 38 (446): 23-35
  3. Nakai, T. 1932 Notulæ ad Plantas Japoniæ & Koreæ XLII Bot. Mag. Tokyo 46 550 603-632
  4. Ohwi, Jjsaburo 1937 Plantæ Novæ Japonicæ (IV) J. Jap. Bot. 13 (5): 332-343
  5. Okamoto, Akihide, Hiroshi Ikeda and Kenichi Suto 2006 Variation in Crossability among Rhododendron japonicum f. flavum Plants as Pollen Parents when Crossed with Evergreen Species, R. eriocarpum J. Japan. Soc. Hort. Sci. 75 (3): 270–272
  6. Okamoto, Akihide, Masataka Yamashita and Yuji Kajitani 2007 Breeding and Production of Kurume Azaleas (Rhododendron obtusum Planch.) Floriculture and Ornamental Biotechnology 30-33
  7. Panda, Subhasis and Munivenkatappa Sanjappab 2011 The Entity of Enkianthus indicus M. R. Debta & H. J. Chowdhery (Ericaceae) J. Jpn. Bot. 86: 41-46
  8. Panda, Subhasis and James L Reveal 2011 Article Lectotypification of three names in Gaultheria L. (Ericaceae) Phytotaxa 38: 24–28
  9. Panda, Subhasis 2012 Gaultheria stapfiana (Ericaceae), a species to be recognized: insights from morphology, leaf anatomy and pollen morphology Phytotaxa 50: 1–12
  10. Panda, Subhasis & Indranil Kirtania 2016 Variation in Rhododendron arboreum Sm. complex (Ericaceae): insights from exomorphology, leaf anatomy and pollen morphology Modern Phytomorphology 9: 27–49
  11. Pradhan, Bharat Kumar, Sabita Dahal, Johan Nilson and Dechen Lachungpa 2015 A Note on Rhododendron mekongense – a New Species Record from Sikkim Himalaya, India J. Amer. Rhododendron Soc. Spring 76-80
  12. Putri, D. M. S. 2011 Fenologi Rhododendron spp. (Subgenus Vireya) Koleksi Kebun Raya Eka Karya Bali J. Hort. 21(3):232-244
  13. Rafidah A. R. 2012 Rhododendron chamahensis (Ericaceae), a new species from Peninsular Malaysia Blumea 57 114-115
  14. Rahman Wiguna 2008 KURANG DATA, STATUS TAKSONOMI DAN HIBRID ALAMI DALAM KONSERVASI Rhododendron spp. DI INDONESIA Buletin Kebun Raya Indonesia 11(2) 5-14
  15. Rana, Prabina, Madan Koirala, Dinesh R. Bhuju and Chuenchit Boonchird 2016 Population Structure of Rhododendron Campanulatum D. Don and Associated Tree Species along the Elevational Gradient of Manaslu Conservation Area, Nepal JIST 21 (1): 95-10
  16. Rana, Prabina, Dinesh R. Bhuju, Madan Koirala and Chuenchit Boonchird 2017 Dendroecological studies of Rhododendron campanulatum D. Don along the elevational gradient of Manaslu Conservation Area, Nepal Himalaya Pak. J. Bot. 49 (5): 1749-1755
  17. Sakata, Yusuke, Ken-ichi Arisumi and Ikuo Miyajima 1991 Some Morphological and Pigmental Characteristics in Rhododendron kaempferi Planch., R. kiusianum Makino and R. eriocarpum Nakai in Southern Kyushu J. Japan. Soc. Hort. Sci. 60 (3) : 669-675
  18. Sax, Hally J. 1960 Polyploidy in Enkianthus (Ericaceae) Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 41 (2): 191-196
  19. Sekar, K. Chandra and Sunil Kumar Srivastava 2010 Rhododendrons in Indian Himalayan Region: Diversity and Conservation American J. Plant Sci. 1(2): 131-137
  20. Sleumer, H. 1958 The genus Rhododendron L. in Indochina and Siam. Blumea. Supplement, 4(1) 39–59.
  21. Sleumer, H. 1966 Ericaceae In Flora Malesiana Vol.6 467-914
  22. Smith, J. J. 1935 A new Rhododendron from Genong Tahan
  23. Tasaki, Keisuke, Akira Nakatsuka, Kyeong-Seong Cheon and Nobuo Kobayashi 2015 Inheritance of the narrow leaf mutation in traditional Japanese evergreen azaleas Euphytica 206:649–656
  24. Thapa, Nayan 2016 Occurrence of Rhododendron camelliiflorum Hooker f. (Ericaceae) in Darjiling Hills: a new record for the state of West Bengal, India Pleione 10(1): 195-198
  25. Tsai, C. C., S. C. Huang, C. H. Chen, Y. H. Tseng, P. L. Huang, S. H. Tsai and C. H. Chou 2003 Genetic relationships of Rhododendron (Ericaceae) in Taiwan based on the sequence of the internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology 78 (2): 234-240
  26. Tsutsumi, Chie and Yumiko Hirayama 2012 The Phylogeny of Japanese Enkianthus species (Ericaceae) Bull. Natl. Mus. Nat. Sci., Ser. Bot. 38 (1): 11–17
  27. Vetaas, Ole R. 2002 Realized and potential climate niches: a comparison of four Rhododendron tree species Journal of Biogeography 29 545–554
  28. Wilson, Ernest Henry and Alfred Rehder 1921 A monograph of Azaleas; Rhododendron subgenus Anthodendron Publications of the Arnold Arboretum no. 9 Cambridge :University Press
  29. Wilson, E. H. 1924 The Rhododendrons of the Bonin and Liukiu islands and of Formosa Rhododendron Society Notes II. V 228-241
  30. Yamazaki, Takasi and Fusako Yamazaki 1972 The cultivars belonging to Rhododendron mucronatum and R. hortense (Plates V1-VII) Journ. Jap. Bot. 47 (6) 167-172
  31. Yang, Jong-Cheol, Yeong-Han Kwon, Seong-Jin Ji, Chang-Ho Shin 2015 A new record of Rhododendron keiskei Miq. var. hypoglaucum Suto & Suzuki (Ericaceae) in Korea Korean J. Pl. Taxon. 45(3): 239-242
  32. Yan,Li‐Jun, Lian‐Ming Gao, De‐Zhu Li 2013 Molecular evidence for natural hybridization between Rhododendron spiciferum and R. spinuliferum (Ericaceae) Journal of Systematics and Evolution 51 (4): 426–434
  33. Yoichi, Watanabe, Xiao‐Feng Jin, Ching-I Peng, Ichiro Tamaki, Nobuhiro Tomaru 2017 Contrasting diversification history between insular and continental species of three‐leaved azaleas (Rhododendron sect. Brachycalyx) in East Asia J. Biogeogr. 44: 1065–1076
  34. Yoichi, Watanabe,, Tadashi Minamitani, Sang-Hun Oh, Atsushi J. Nagano, Harue Abe, Tomohisa Yukawa 2019 New taxa of Rhododendron tschonoskii alliance (Ericaceae) from East Asia PhytoKeys 134: 97–114.
  35. Yonekura, Koji 2005 Taxonomic Notes on Vascular Plants in Japan and Its Adjacent Regions (1). -New Combinations and New Names of Japanese Plants J. Jpn. Bot. 80: 323-333
  36. Zhou, Hong, Jin Liao, Yi-Ping Xia and Yuan-Wen Teng 2013 Determination of genetic relationships between evergreen azalea cultivars in China using AFLP markers J. Zhejiang Univ-Sci B (Biomed & Biotechnol) 14(4):299-308
  37. Zhou, Hong, Jin Liao, Yi-Ping Xia and Yuan-Wen Teng 2013 Morphological characteristics for classifying evergreen Azalea (Ericaceae) Cultivars in China using numerical taxonomy Pak. J. Bot. 45(2): 593-598


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  28. 岡本章秀 2009 クルメツツジキレンゲツツジとの生殖的隔離機構の解明に基づく常緑性黄花ツツジ の作出に関する研究 九州沖縄農研報告 50:21-110
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  35. 宮島郁夫,上野貴美恵,嬉野健次,松田鹿徳 2000 九州ヤマツツジ (Rhododendron kaempferi Planch.) における生態型および葉中フラボノイド系色素構成の変異 九大農学芸誌 54 (3/4): 109-114
  36. 倉重祐二,小林伸雄 2008 発見された神奈川県立農事試験場“躑躅類調査”にみる 大正時代のツツジ園芸品種と育種傾向の推察 園学研 7 (2): 323–328
  37. 高连明、杨俊波、张长芹、李德铢 2002 基于 ITS 序列分析探讨杜鹃属映山红亚属的组间关系 云南植物研究 24(3) 313-320
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  18. Editorial Commitee fo the Flora of Taiwan 1993 Flora of Taiwan, Second edition. Volume Three, Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 106, the Republic of China, ISBN 957-9019-92-4
  19. Editorial Commitee fo the Flora of Taiwan 1998 Flora of Taiwan, Second edition. Volume Four, Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 106, the Republic of China, ISBN 957-9019-92-4
  20. Editorial Commitee fo the Flora of Taiwan 2000 Flora of Taiwan, Second edition. Volume Five, Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 106, the Republic of China, ISBN 957-9019-92-4
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