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Primulaceae Reference

  1. Chung, Shih-Wen, Tian-Chuan Hsu, An-Ching Chung and Po-Hao Chen 2018 Two new naturalized plants to the Flora of Taiwan Quarterly Journal of Forest Research 40 (3): 179-184 / Linaria canadensis and Samolus valerandi
  2. Dubéarnès, Anne, Avelinah Julius, Timothy M. A. Utteridge 2015 A synopsis of the genus Embelia in Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. Studies in Malaysian Myrsinaceae III Kew Bulletin 70 (2): 25
  3. Hsu, Tian-Chuan, Jia-Jung Lin and Shih-Wen Chung 2009 Two Newly Discovered Plants in Taiwan Taiwania 54(4): 403-407 / Anagallis minima and Limnophila fragrans
  4. Hu, Chiming and Vidal J E 1996 Towards a revision of the Myrsinaceae of Indochina Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Botany 4 (4):1-15
  5. Kao, Mue-Tsuen, Charles E. DeVol 1970 The Primulaceae of Taiwan Taiwania 15(1) 51-72
  6. Ma, O. S. W. and R. M. K. Saunders 2003 Comparative floral ontogeny of Maesa (Maesaceae), Aegiceras (Myrsinaceae) and Embelia (Myrsinaceae): Taxonomic and phylogenetic implications Plant Systematics and Evolution 243 (1):39-58
  7. Martins, L., C. Oberprieler and F. H. Hellwig 2003 A phylogenetic analysis of Primulaceae s.l. based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) DNA sequence data Plant Syst. Evol. 237(1-2): 75–85
  8. Nowicke, Joan W. and John J. Skfarla 1977 Pollen morphology and the relationship of the Plumbaginaceae, Polygonaceae, and Primulaceae to the order Centrospermae Smithsonian contributions to botany no. 37.
  9. Pipoly III , John J. and Chen Chieh 1995 Nomenclatural Notes on the Myrsinaceae of China Novon 5(4): 357-361
  10. Ricketson, Jon M. and John J. Pipoly III 2013 Nomenclatural Transfers in the Pantropical Genus Myrsine (Myrsinaceae) Novon 22 (4): 468-472
  11. Sleumer, H. 1987 A revision of the genus Maesa Forsk. (Myrsinaceae) in New Guinea,the Moluccas, and the Solomon Islands Blumea 32 39-65
  12. Sunarno, Bambang 2002 New species of Labisia (Myrsinaceae) from Sumatra Reinwardtia 12(1): 121–124
  13. Wang, Jun and Nian-he Xia 2011 A new variety of Maesa Forssk. (Maesaceae) from Kachin state, Myanmar Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Botany 9 (3):225-227
  14. Yang, Yuen-Po 1999 An enumeration of Myrsinaceae of Taiwan Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 40(1): 39-47

  1. 王玉金、李小娟、郝刚、刘建全 2004 点地梅属的分子系统学、 生物地理学和垫状形态的趋同进化 植物分类学报 42(6) 481-499
  2. 胡启明 1992 中国越南紫金牛科植物新种及混淆种类的澄清 华南植物学报 (1): 1-13.
  3. 陈介 1978 中国紫金牛科新种及新变种 植物分类学报 16 (3): 79-81
  4. 庞博,潘远智,孙振元,陈文志 2006 我国报春花属植物研究进展 安徽农业科学 34(16) 3957-3959
  5. 楊遠波,呂勝由 1989 台灣植物註(1) 林業試驗所究報告季刊 4(2) 77-82 / Ardisia villosaSinomenium acutumLasianthus sikkimensis

Ardisia Reference

  1. Chatan, Wannachai and Wilawan Promprom 2017 New subspecies of Ardisia crenata (Primulaceae) from Thailand Taiwania 62 (2): 116‒120
  2. Hu, Chi Ming 1999 New synonyms and combinations in Asiatic Ardisia (Myrsinaceae) Blumea 44 391-406
  3. Julius, Avellinh Timothy M. A. Utteridge 2012 Revision of Ardisia subgenus Bladhia in Peninsular Malaysia; studies in Malaysian Myrsinaceae I Kew Bulletin 67 (3), 379-388
  4. Julius, Avelinah, Tadashi Kajita and Timothy M. A. Utteridge 2017 Ardisia gasingoides (Primulaceae-Myrsinoideae), a new species from southern Peninsular Malaysia Phytotaxa 291 (4): 281-286
  5. Stone, Benjamin C. 1993 New and Noteworthy Malesian Myrsinaceae, VI. Scherantha, a New Subgenus of Ardisia Pacific Science 47 (3): 276-294
  6. Utteridge, Timothy M. A., Avelinah Julius and Suzana Sabran 2014 Ardisia silamensis, a new ultramafic species from Borneo; studies in Malaysian Myrsinaceae II Kew Bulletin 69 (2) : 9510-9514
  7. Yang, Yuen-Po and Sheng-you Lu 1989 Comments on the Taiwan Quarterly Journal of Forest Research 4(2) 77-82 / Ardisia villosaSinomenium acutumLasianthus sikkimensis
  8. Yang, Yuen-Po 1989 Short comments of Ardisia (Myrsinaceae) of Eastern Asia Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 30(4): 297-298
  9. Yang, Yuen-Po and John D. Dwyer 1989 Taxonomy of Subgenus Bladhia of Ardisia (Myrsinaceae) Taiwania 34 (2) 192-298
  10. Zhao, Ai-Lian, Xiao-Yong Chen, Xin Zhang and Dong Zhang 2006 Effects of fragmentation of evergreen broad-leaved forests on genetic diversity of Ardisia crenata var. bicolor (Myrsinaceae) Biodiversity & Conservation 15(4): 1339–1351

  1. 王军,夏念和 2009 中国紫金牛科紫金牛属新异名兼论华紫金牛亚属的地位 热带亚热带植物学报 17(1):83-85
  2. 王军,夏念和 2013 中国紫金牛属的分支分类学研究 热带亚热带植物学报 21 (6): 549-559
  3. 袁德义,何小勇,莫文娟,练发良,张琳 2008 朱砂根ISSR 反应体系的建立与优化 浙江林业科技 28(4) 60-62
  4. 徐玲玲,李同建,张美云,易官美,廖亮 2009 基于核 ITS 与叶绿体 trnL-F 序列分析 12 种紫金牛属植物的种间关系与变异 园艺学报 36(10): 1531-1537
  5. 张巧玲,谢建光,陈显化,郝刚 2007 中国紫金牛属圆齿组果实微形态特征研究 武汉植物学研究 25(5):432-439
  6. 邓素芳,杨旸,赖钟雄 2009 朱砂根品种资源的RAPD分析 中国农学通报 25(10): 63-67

Lysimachia Reference

  1. Anderberg, Arne A., Ulrika Manns and Mari Källersjö 2007 Phylogeny and floral evolution of the Lysimachieae (Ericales, Myrsinaceae): evidence from ndhF sequence data Willdenowia 37: 407-421
  2. Kodela, P. G. 2006 Lysimachia (Myrsinaceae) in New South Wales Telopea 11(2) 147-154
  3. Peng, Ching-I and Chi-Ming Hu 1999 Lysimachia chingshuiensis (Primulaceae), a new species from eastern Taiwan Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 40 49-52
  4. Rhizopoulou, Sophia, Emmanuel Spanakis and Apostolos Argiropoulos (2015) Study of petal topography of Lysimachia arvensis grown under natural conditions Acta Botanica Gallica 162 (4): 355-364
  5. Suzuki, Ryo O., Hiroshi Kudoh, Naoki Kachi 2003 Spatial and temporal variations in mortality of the biennial plant, Lysimachia rubida: effects of intraspecific competition and environmental heterogeneity J. of Ecology 91(1) 114–125
  6. Yang, T. Y. Aleck, Alisa Grabovskaya, Irina Illarionova and Chih-Hsiung Chen 2012 Lysimachia candida Lindl. (Primulaceae), an extinct species and also a new record species to Taiwan Taiwania 57(4): 434–442
  7. Zhang, Cai-tun, Feng-Ying Wang, Hai-Fei Yan, Gang hao amd Chi-Ming Hu 2012 Testing DNA barcoding in closely related groups of Lysimachia L. (Myrsinaceae) Molecular Ecology Resources 12(1) 98-108

  1. 廖亮,周筱玲 1998 五种珍珠菜的核型研究 云南植物研究 20(4) 413-418
  2. 邵剑文,李晓红,韩露,张小平 2004 5种珍珠菜属植物的核型分析 云南植物研究 26(4) 427-433
  3. 邵剑文,张小平,朱国萍 2006 珍珠菜属植物种皮微形态特征及其系统学意义 云南植物研究 28(4) 378-382

Primula Reference

  1. Bawri, A., P. R. Gajurel and M. L. Khan 2013 Record of Primula waltonii Watt ex I.B. Balfour (Primulaceae) from Arunachal Himalaya with taxonomic notes Pleione 7(1): 262 - 265
  2. Bawri, A., P. R. Gajurel and M. L. Khan 2017 Primula sikkimensis Hook. and P. obliqua W. W. Sm. (Primulaceae) – new additions to the flora of Arunachal Pradesh, India Pleione 11(1): 167-171
  3. Ghosh, R. B. 1981 An analysis on the distribution of the Indian taxa of the genus Primula Linn., in the eastern Himalaya with remarks on the apecies of Assam An. Aula Dei 15 (3-4) 219-228
  4. Mast, Austin R., Sylvia Kelso, A. John Richards, Daniela J. Lang, Danielle M. S. Feller and Elena Conti 2001 Phylogenetic relationships in Primula L. and related Genera (Primulaceae) based on moncoding chloroplast DNA Int. J. Plant Sci. 162 (6):1381-1400


Web Link

  1. Department of Botany & the U.S. National Herbarium 2017 The Plant Press vol 20 (2) Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History
  2. International Association for Vegetation Science 2009 Vegetation Processes and Human Impact in a Changing World 52nd INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM
  3. 17th International Workshop European Vegetation Survey 2008 Using phytosociological data to address ecological questions Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic
  4. Gilly, Charles Louis 1950 Phylogenetic development of the inflorescence and generic relationships in the Kobresiaceae Retrospective Theses and Dissertations 13679.

Books and Journals


  1. Arora, R. K. 2014 Diversity in underutilized plant species - an Asia-Pacific perspective Bioversity International
  2. Azan, Shakira Stephanie Elaine 2011Invasive aquatic plants and the aquarium and ornamental pond industries Theses and dissertations Ryerson University P. 818
  3. Beech, E., M. Rivers, S. Oldfield and P. P. Smith 2017 GlobalTreeSearch: The first complete global database of tree species and country distributions Journal of Sustainable Forestry 36: 5 454-489
  4. Chen, Xin, Hai He and Li-Bing Zhang 2015 A monograph of the Anisophylleaceae (Cucurbitales) with description of 18 new species of Anisophyllea Phytotaxa 229 (1):1-189
  5. Chiou, Chyi-Rong, Guo-Zhang Michael Song, Jui-Han Chien, Chang-Fu Hsieh, Jenn Che Wang, Ming-Yih Chen, Ho-Yih Liu, Ching-Long Yeh, Yue-Joe Hsia, and Tze-Ying Chen 2010 Altitudinal distribution patterns of plant species in Taiwan are mainly determined by the northeast monsoon rather than the heat retention mechanism of Massenerhebung Botanical Studies 51: 89-97
  6. Cornelissen, Johannes H. C., Yao-Bin Song, Fei-Hai, Yu Ming Dong 2014 Plant traits and ecosystem effects of clonality: a new research agenda Annals of Botany 114: 369–376
  7. Dai Chang-Feng et. 2008 The Research of Natural Resources of the Three Northern Islets Taiwanese Coral Feef Society Marine National Park
  8. Duke, Norman C., Jock Mackenzie, Apanie Wood 2012 A revision of mangrove plants of the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, Fiji, Tonga and Samoa Tropical Water & Aquatic Ecosystem Research
  9. Eckert, Christopher G. 1999 Clonal plant research: proliferation, integration, but not much evolution Am. J. Bot. 86(11) 1649-1654
  10. Editorial Commitee fo the Flora of Taiwan 1994 Flora of Taiwan, Second edition. Volume one, Detparment of Botany, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 106, the Republic of China, ISBN 957-9019-52-5
  11. Editorial Commitee fo the Flora of Taiwan 1996 Flora of Taiwan, Second edition. Volume Two, Detparment of Botany, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 106, the Republic of China, ISBN 957-9019-92-4
  12. Editorial Commitee fo the Flora of Taiwan 1993 Flora of Taiwan, Second edition. Volume Three, Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 106, the Republic of China, ISBN 957-9019-92-4
  13. Editorial Commitee fo the Flora of Taiwan 1998 Flora of Taiwan, Second edition. Volume Four, Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 106, the Republic of China, ISBN 957-9019-92-4
  14. Editorial Commitee fo the Flora of Taiwan 2000 Flora of Taiwan, Second edition. Volume Five, Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 106, the Republic of China, ISBN 957-9019-92-4
  15. Endress, Peter K. 2010 The evolution of floral biology in basal angiosperms Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 365(1539): 411–421
  16. Giesen, Wim Stephan Wulffraat, Max Zieren and Liesbeth Scholten 2006 Mangrove Guidebook for Southeast Asia FAO and Wetlands International ISBN: 974-7946-85-8
  17. Goldberg, Aaron 1986 Classification, Evolution, and Phylogeny of the Families of Dicotyledons Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 58: 1–314
  18. Gradstein, S. Robbert, Jürgen Homeier and Dirk Gansert 2008 The Tropical Mountain Forest Patterns and Processes in a Biodiversity Hotspot Biodiversity and Ecology Series 2
  19. Grande, J. R., J. Kallunki, M. M. Arbo, P. E. Berry, O. Huber and R. Riina 2012 Botanical novelties from Sierra de Maigualida, southern Venezuela II. Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 69(1): 7-19
  20. Herben, Tomáš, Zuzana Nováková, Jitka Klimešová 2014 Clonal growth and plant species abundance Annals of Botany 114: 377–388
  21. Hsieh, Chang-Fu 1989 Structure and Floristic Composition of the Beech Forest in Taiwan Taiwania 34(1) 28-44
  22. Kaufmann, Eva 2003 Southeast Asian Ant-Gardens- Diversity, ecology, ecosystematic significance, and evolution of mutualistic ant-epiphyte associations - Universitätsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg
  23. Keng, Hsuan 1973 Nomenclatural Notes on Wu P'I Ch'a or the Black-barked Tea Plant Taiwania 18(1) 55-56
  24. Kitamura 1941 An Enureration of Compositae of Formosa Acta phytotaxonomica et geobotanica 10(1) 15-33
  25. Klimešová, Jitka, Jiří Doležal and Marek Sammul 2011 Evolutionary and organismic constraints on the relationship between spacer length and environmental conditions in clonal plants Oikos 120: 1110–1120
  26. Kron, Kathleen A. 1996 Phylogenetic Relationships of Empetraceae, Epacridaceae, Ericaceae, Monotropaceae, and Pyrolaceae: Evidence from Nuclear Ribosomal 18s Sequence Data Ann. Bot. 77(4): 293-303
  27. Kuoh, Chang-Sheng, Gow-Ing Liao and Ming-Yih Chen 1999 Two New Naturalized Grasses in Taiwan. Taiwania 44(4) 514-519
  28. Kuoh, Chang-Sheng and Chih-Hui Chen 2000 New Naturalized Grasses in Taiwan. Taiwania 45(4) 328-333
  29. Liu, Y. C. and C. H. Ou 1974 New additions to the flora of Taiwan. Quarterly journal of Chinese forestry 7(4): 150-151.
  30. Löve, Áskell and Ebba Kjellqvist 1974 Cytotaxonomy of Spanish plants. III Dicotyledons: Salicaceae-Rosaceae Lagascalia 4(1): 3-32


  1. Ma, Jin-Shuang 2010 Nomenclatural notes on alien vascular plants in north american originated from east asia Acta Botanica Yunnanica 32(1): 14-24
  2. Nandi, Owi I., Mark W. Chase and Peter K. Endress 1998 A Combined Cladistic Analysis of Angiosperms Using rbcL and Non-Molecular Data Sets Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 85 (1) 137-214
  3. Newman, Mark,Sounthone Ketphanh, Bouakhaykhone Svengsuksa, Philip Thomas, Khamphone Sengdala, Vichith Lamxay, Kate Armstrong 2007 A Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Lao PDR Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh ISBN 978-1-906129-04-0
  4. Ohashi, Hiroyoshi 2009 Bunzo Hayata and His Contributions to the Flora of Taiwan. Taiwania 54(1) 1-27
  5. Peng, Ching-I 1978 Some new records for the Flora of Taiwan Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 19(1) 83-86
  6. Peng Ching-I, Shiou-Fen Yen and Ji-Yui Guo 1986 Notes on the Chromosome Cytology of Some Rare, Threatened, or Endangered Plants of Taiwan (I) Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 27(2): 219-235
  7. Qiu, Yin-Long, Olena Dombrovska, Jungho Lee, Libo Li, Barbara A. Whitlock, Fabiana Bernasconi-Quadroni, Joshua S. Rest, et al. 2005. Phylogenetic analyses of basal angiosperms based on nine plastid, mitochondrial, and nuclear genes. International Journal of Plant Sciences 166(5): 815-842.
  8. Rashid, M Enamur and Mohammad Atiqur Rahman 2011 Updated nomenclature and taxonomic status of the plants of Bangladesh included in Hook. f., the Flora of British India: Volume-I Bangladesh Journal of Plant Taxonomy 18(2) 177-197
  9. Severinghaus, Sheldon and Charles E. DeVol 1974 Note on the distribution of Taiwan Beech Taiwania 19(2) 235-237
  10. Shaheen, Hamayun, Shujaul Mulk Khan, David M. Harper, Zahid Ullah, and Rizwana Allem Qureshi 2011 Species Diversity, Community Structure, and Distribution Patterns in Western Himalayan Alpine Pastures of Kashmir, Pakistan Mountain Research and Development 31(2):153-159
  11. Shi, Suhua,Yaqing Du,D. E. Boufford, Xun Gong, Yelin Huang, Hanghang He & Yang Zhong 2003 Phylogenetic position of Schnabelia, a genus endemic to China: Evidence from sequences of cpDNA matK gene and nrDNA ITS regions Chinese Science Bulletin 48(15) 1576-1580
  12. Shisode, S. B. and D. A. Patil 2011 Taxonomic and phylogenetic census of the Celastrales: A synthetic review Curr. Bot. 2(4): 36-43
  13. Sosnová, Monika, Rudyvan Diggelen, Jitka Klimešová 2010 Distribution of clonal growth forms in wetlands Aquatic Botany 92(1) 33-39
  14. Starr, Forest, Kim Starr, and Lloyd L. Loope 2010 New plant records from the Hawaiian Archipelago Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 107:61-68
  15. Steinmanna, K., H. P. Linder, N. E. Zimmermanna 2009 Modelling plant species richness using functional groups Ecological Modelling 220 962-967
  16. Su, Horng-Jye 2000 Contribution to a revised orchid flora of Taiwan (IV). Taiwania 45(3) 239-248
  17. Tamura, Minoru N., Shingchi Chen and Nicholas J. Turland 2000 A New Combination in Heteropolygonatum (Convallariaceae, Polygonateae) NOVON 10(2): 156-157
  18. Thaman, R. R. and Malosi Samuelu 2016 Vascular Plants, vegetation and ethnobotany of Banaba (Ocean island), Republic of Kiribati Atoll Research Bulletin No. 609
  19. Turner, I. M., Y. W. Low, M. Rodda, K. M. Wong and D. J. Middleton 2018 The plant taxa of H. N. Ridley, 5. The Gentianales Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 70 (2): 307–395
  20. Van der Vossen, H. A. M. and M. Wessel 2000 Plant Resources of South-East Asia Stimulants 16 ISBN 90-5782-053-6
  21. Von Lampe, Maud, Gerd Jünger and Ssabine Tischew 2002 Morphological features of herbaceous perennials causing abundance in lignite mining areas
  22. Wu, S.-H., C.-H. Hsieh and M. Rejmánek. 2004b. Catalogue of the naturalized flora of Taiwan. Taiwania 49: 16-31.
  23. Wu, Shan-Huah, T. Y. Aleck Yang, Yung-Ching Teng, Chih-Yuan Chang, Kuoh-Cheng Yang and Chang-Fu Hsieh 2010 Insights of the Latest Naturalized Flora of Taiwan : Change in the Past Eight Years Taiwania 55(2): 139-159
  24. Yamashita, Jun and Minoru N. Tamura 2001 Karyotype analysis of two species of the Chinese epiphytic genus Heteropolygonatum (Convallariaceae-Polygonateae) Acta Phytotax Geobot. 51 (2): 147-153
  25. Yang, Y.-P., H.-Y. Liu and S.-Y. Lu. 1997. Concise vascular flora of Taiwan. 2: 352. Council of Agriculture, Taiwan.
  26. Yang, Y.-P., H.-Y. Liu, S.-Y. Lu and B.-L. Shih. 1998. Concise vascular flora of Taiwan. 3: 392. Council of Agriculture, Taiwan.
  27. Yang, Y.-P., H.-Y. Liu, S.-Y. Lu and B.-L. Shih. 1999. Concise vascular flora of Taiwan. 4: 432. Council of Agriculture, Taiwan.
  28. Yang, Y.-P., H.-Y. Liu and T.-P. Lin. 2001. Concise vascular flora of Taiwan. 5: 457. Council of Agriculture, Taiwan.
  29. Yang, Yuen-Po and Ho-Yih Liu 2002 Nomenclature Changes for Some Dicots of Taiwan Taiwania 47(2) 175-178
  30. Yang, Yuen-Po, Chun-kuei Liao, Mo-shih Tang, Chih-Kai Yang, Chiou-Yu Yeh 2009 Family and genus flora of Taiwan seed plants. Forestry Bureau, The Council of Agriculture, The Executive Yuan, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China ISBN 978-986-02-2316-3
  31. Yong, Jean W H, Chiou-Rong Sheue 2014 A Comparative Guide to the Asian Mangroves