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Begoniaceae Reference

  1. Ardi, Wisnu H., I. M. Ardhaka, M. Hughes, N. K. E. Undaharta, D. Girmansyah and S. Hidayat 2013 Two new species of Begonia (Begoniaceae) from Bali and Lombok Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 65(2): 135–142
  2. Ardi, W. H. & D.C. Thomas 2015 Studies on Begonia (Begoniaceae) of the Moluccas II: a new species from Seram, Indonesia Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore 67(2): 297–303
  3. Doorenbos, J., M. S. M. Sosef, J. J. F. E. de Wilde 1998 The sections of Begonia including descriptions, keys and species lists (Studies in Begoniaceae VI). Wageningen Agriculture Univ.
  4. Hoover, W. Scott, Carrie Karegeannes, Harry Wiriadinata and James M. Hunter 2004 Notes on the geography of South-East Asian Begonia and species diversity in montane forests Telopea 10 (3): 749-764
  5. Hughes, Mark and Deden Girmansyah 2011 A revision of Begonia sect. Sphenanthera (Hassk.) Warb. (Begoniaceae) from Sumatra Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 62 (2): 239–251
  6. Hughes, Mark and Wayne Takeuchi 2015 A new section (Begonia sect. Oligandrae sect. nov.) and a new species (Begonia pentandra sp. nov.) in Begoniaceae from New Guinea Phytotaxa 197(1): 37–44
  7. Hughes, Mark, Rosario Rivera Rubite, Patrick Blanc, Kuo-Fang Chung and Ching-I Peng 2015 The Miocene to Pleistocene colonization of the Philippine archipelago by Begonia sect. Baryandra (Begoniaceae) Am. J. Bot. 102 (5) 695–706
  8. Kiew, Ruth 2001 Begonia conipila Irmsch. ex Kiew (Begoniaceae) from the Gunung Mulu National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 53 287-289
  9. Kiew, Ruth and Julia Sang 2007 Begonia (Begoniaceae) from limestone hills in the Kuching Division, Sarawak, Borneo, including nine new species Bulletin Singapore 58 (2) 199-232
  10. Kiew, R. and J. Sang 2009 Seven New Species of Begonia (Begoniaceae) from the Ulu Merirai and Bukit Sarang limestone areas in Sarawak, Borneo Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 60 (2): 351-372
  11. Lai, Ming-Jou 1979 Critical studies of some Begonia from Taiwan. Taiwania 24:35-37
  12. Lin, Che-Wei and Ching-I Peng 2014 Begonia natunaensis (sect. Reichenheimia, Begoniaceae), a new species from Natuna Island, Indonesia Taiwania 59(4): 368‒ 373
  13. Lin, Che-Wei and Ching-I Peng 2017 Three new species of Begonia (Begoniaceae) from Limestone Hills in southwestern Sarawak, Borneo Taiwania 62(2): 105‒115
  14. Lin, Che-Wei, Shin-Wen Chung and Ching-I Peng 2017 Eleven new species of Begonia (Begoniaceae) from Sarawak, Borneo Taiwania 62 (3): 219-251
  15. Liu, Yeh-Ching, Chern-Hsiung Ou 1982 Contributions to the Dicotyledonous Plants of Taiwan (Ⅶ) Bullitin Exper. For. NCHU 4: 1-16 / Rosa sambusiana var. whshanianaMucuna tiawanianaPassiflora foetida var. tainanianaBegonia lukuanaAbutilon grandifoliumAbutilon hirtumSida javensis ssp. expilosaNicotiana alataDesmodium tortuosumAcalypha indica
  16. Nabila, S., A. Normalini, Z. Natasha, A. Said, I. B. Ipor, M. Hidir, S. Shafiq and K Meekiong 2011 Diversity of the genus Begonia (Begoniaceae) at the foothill of limestone hills in Bau, Padawan and Serian areas Taxonomist & Ecologist Conference 350-354
  17. Nakamura, Koh, , Yi-Fu Wang, Meng-Jung Ho, Kuo-Fang Chung and Ching-I Peng 2015 New Distribution Record of Begonia grandis (Begoniaceae, section Diploclinium) from Taiwan, with subspecies assignment based on morphology and molecular phylogeny Taiwania 60 (1) 49-53
  18. Peng, C.-I, Y. K. Chen and H.F. Yen. 1988. Begonia ravenii (Begoniaceae), a new species from Taiwan Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 29: 217-222
  19. Peng, Chen-I and Yung-Kuan Chen 1990 Begonia austrotaiwanensis (Begoniaceae), a new species from southern Taiwan J. Arnold Arbor 71:567-574
  20. Peng, C.-I and Y.-K. Chen. 1991. Hybridity and parentage of Begonia buimontana Yamamoto (Begoniaceae) from Taiwan Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 78: 995-1001.
  21. Peng, Ching-I and Yung-Kuan Chen 1991 Hybridity and Parentage of Begonia buimontana Yamamoto (Begoniaceae) from Taiwan Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 78:995-1001
  22. Peng, C.-I and C.-Y. Sue. 2000. Begonia × taipeiensis (Begoniaceae), a new natural hybrid in Taiwan Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 41:151-158
  23. Peng, Ching-I, Yung-Kuang Chen, and Wai-Chao Leong 2005 Five new species of Begonia (Begoniaceae) from Taiwan Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 46:255-272
  24. Peng, Ching-I and Shin-Ming Ku 2009 Begonia × chungii (Begoniaceae), a new natural hybrid in Taiwan Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 50: 241-250
  25. Rajbhandary, Sangeeta, Mark Hughes, Krishna K. Shrestha 2012 Pollen morphology of Begonia L. (Begoniaceae) in Nepal Bangladesh J. Plant Taxon. 19(2): 191-200
  26. Rubite, Rosario Rivera, John Rey Callado, Yoshiko Kono and Hsun-An Yang 2014. Begonia chingipengii (sect. Baryandra, Begoniaceae), A New Species from Luzon Island, Philippines. Phytotaxa. 164 (3): 175–182.
  27. Sang, Julia and Ruth Kiew 2014 Diversity of Begonia (Begoniaceae) in Broneo - How many species are there ? REINWARDTIA 14 (1): 233−236
  28. Satyanti, Annisa Hartutiningsih-M. Siregar 2012 Microclimate preference and habitat of Begonia in Bedugul, Bali BIOTROPIA 19(2): 80-91
  29. Shui, Yu-Min, Ching-I Peng, and Cheng-Yih Wu 2002 Synopsis of the Chinese species of Begonia (Begoniaceae), with a reappraisal of sectional delimitation Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 43 313-327
  30. Shui, Yu-Min 2007 Begonia tetralobata (Begoniaceae), a new species from China Annales Botanici Fennici 44(1) 76-79
  31. Siregar, Hartutiningsih-M. 2017 The conservation of native, lowland Indonesian Begonia species (Begoniaceae) in Bogor Botanic Gardens BIODIVERSITAS 18 (1) 326-333
  32. Tebbit, Mark C. 2005 A new species of Fleshy-fruited Begonia (Begoniaceae) from Sumatra Blumea 50 153–156
  33. Thomas, D. C., W. H. Ardi and M. Hughes 2009 Two new species of Begonia (Begoniaceae) from Central Sulawesi, Indonesia Edinburgh Journal of Botany 66 (1) 103-114
  34. Thomas, Daniel Caspar 2010 Phylogenetics and historical biogeography of Southeast Asian Begonia L. (Begoniaceae) University of Glasgow Ph. D.
  35. Thomas, D. C., W. H. Ardi and M. Hughes 2011 Nine new species of Begonia (Begoniaceae) from South and West Sulawesi, Indonesia Edinburgh Journal of Botany 68 (2) 225-255
  36. Undaharta, N. K. E. & W. H. Ardi 2016 Studies on Begonia (Begoniaceae) of the Moluccas III: A new Begonia from Seram, Indonesia Bulletin Singapore 68 (2) 279–285
  37. Wiriadinata, Harry 2013 A new species of Begonia (Begoniaceae) from South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Reinwardtia 13 (5) 445− 448
  38. Ye, Hua-Gu, Fa-Guo Wang, Yu-Shi Ye and Ching-I Peng 2004 Begonia coptidifolia (Begoniaceae), a new species from China Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 45: 259—266

  1. 向建英、管开云、杨俊波 2002 应用 ITS 区序列对秋海棠属无翅组分类学问题的探讨 云南植物研究 22(4) 455-462
  2. 税玉民,陈文红 2005 世界秋海棠属侧膜组植物新资料 云南植物研究 27(4) 355-374


Web Link

  1. Department of Botany & the U.S. National Herbarium 2017 The Plant Press vol 20 (2) Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History
  2. International Association for Vegetation Science 2009 Vegetation Processes and Human Impact in a Changing World 52nd INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM
  3. 17th International Workshop European Vegetation Survey 2008 Using phytosociological data to address ecological questions Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic

Books and Journals


  1. Arora, R. K. 2014 Diversity in underutilized plant species - an Asia-Pacific perspective Bioversity International
  2. Azan, Shakira Stephanie Elaine 2011Invasive aquatic plants and the aquarium and ornamental pond industries Theses and dissertations Ryerson University P. 818
  3. Chen, Xin, Hai He and Li-Bing Zhang 2015 A monograph of the Anisophylleaceae (Cucurbitales) with description of 18 new species of Anisophyllea Phytotaxa 229 (1):1-189
  4. Chiou, Chyi-Rong, Guo-Zhang Michael Song, Jui-Han Chien, Chang-Fu Hsieh, Jenn Che Wang, Ming-Yih Chen, Ho-Yih Liu, Ching-Long Yeh, Yue-Joe Hsia, and Tze-Ying Chen 2010 Altitudinal distribution patterns of plant species in Taiwan are mainly determined by the northeast monsoon rather than the heat retention mechanism of Massenerhebung Botanical Studies 51: 89-97
  5. Cornelissen, Johannes H. C., Yao-Bin Song, Fei-Hai, Yu Ming Dong 2014 Plant traits and ecosystem effects of clonality: a new research agenda Annals of Botany 114: 369–376
  6. Dai Chang-Feng et. 2008 The Research of Natural Resources of the Three Northern Islets Taiwanese Coral Feef Society Marine National Park
  7. Duke, Norman C., Jock Mackenzie, Apanie Wood 2012 A revision of mangrove plants of the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, Fiji, Tonga and Samoa Tropical Water & Aquatic Ecosystem Research
  8. Eckert, Christopher G. 1999 Clonal plant research: proliferation, integration, but not much evolution Am. J. Bot. 86(11) 1649-1654
  9. Editorial Commitee fo the Flora of Taiwan 1994 Flora of Taiwan, Second edition. Volume one, Detparment of Botany, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 106, the Republic of China, ISBN 957-9019-52-5
  10. Editorial Commitee fo the Flora of Taiwan 1996 Flora of Taiwan, Second edition. Volume Two, Detparment of Botany, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 106, the Republic of China, ISBN 957-9019-92-4
  11. Editorial Commitee fo the Flora of Taiwan 1993 Flora of Taiwan, Second edition. Volume Three, Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 106, the Republic of China, ISBN 957-9019-92-4
  12. Editorial Commitee fo the Flora of Taiwan 1998 Flora of Taiwan, Second edition. Volume Four, Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 106, the Republic of China, ISBN 957-9019-92-4
  13. Editorial Commitee fo the Flora of Taiwan 2000 Flora of Taiwan, Second edition. Volume Five, Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 106, the Republic of China, ISBN 957-9019-92-4
  14. Endress, Peter K. 2010 The evolution of floral biology in basal angiosperms Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 365(1539): 411–421
  15. Gradstein, S. Robbert, Jürgen Homeier and Dirk Gansert 2008 The Tropical Mountain Forest Patterns and Processes in a Biodiversity Hotspot Biodiversity and Ecology Series 2
  16. Giesen, Wim Stephan Wulffraat, Max Zieren and Liesbeth Scholten 2006 Mangrove Guidebook for Southeast Asia FAO and Wetlands International ISBN: 974-7946-85-8
  17. Grande, J. R., J. Kallunki, M. M. Arbo, P. E. Berry, O. Huber and R. Riina 2012 Botanical novelties from Sierra de Maigualida, southern Venezuela II. Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 69(1): 7-19
  18. Herben, Tomáš, Zuzana Nováková, Jitka Klimešová 2014 Clonal growth and plant species abundance Annals of Botany 114: 377–388
  19. Hsieh, Chang-Fu 1989 Structure and Floristic Composition of the Beech Forest in Taiwan Taiwania 34(1) 28-44
  20. Kaufmann, Eva 2003 Southeast Asian Ant-Gardens- Diversity, ecology, ecosystematic significance, and evolution of mutualistic ant-epiphyte associations - Universitätsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg
  21. Keng, Hsuan 1973 Nomenclatural Notes on Wu P'I Ch'a or the Black-barked Tea Plant Taiwania 18(1) 55-56
  22. Kitamura 1941 An Enureration of Compositae of Formosa Acta phytotaxonomica et geobotanica 10(1) 15-33
  23. Klimešová, Jitka, Jiří Doležal and Marek Sammul 2011 Evolutionary and organismic constraints on the relationship between spacer length and environmental conditions in clonal plants Oikos 120: 1110–1120
  24. Kron, Kathleen A. 1996 Phylogenetic Relationships of Empetraceae, Epacridaceae, Ericaceae, Monotropaceae, and Pyrolaceae: Evidence from Nuclear Ribosomal 18s Sequence Data Ann. Bot. 77(4): 293-303
  25. Kuoh, Chang-Sheng, Gow-Ing Liao and Ming-Yih Chen 1999 Two New Naturalized Grasses in Taiwan. Taiwania 44(4) 514-519
  26. Kuoh, Chang-Sheng and Chih-Hui Chen 2000 New Naturalized Grasses in Taiwan. Taiwania 45(4) 328-333
  27. Liu, Y. C. and C. H. Ou 1974 New additions to the flora of Taiwan. Quarterly journal of Chinese forestry 7(4): 150-151.
  28. Löve, Áskell and Ebba Kjellqvist 1974 Cytotaxonomy of Spanish plants. III Dicotyledons: Salicaceae-Rosaceae Lagascalia 4(1): 3-32


  1. Ma, Jin-Shuang 2010 Nomenclatural notes on alien vascular plants in north american originated from east asia Acta Botanica Yunnanica 32(1): 14-24
  2. Nandi, Owi I., Mark W. Chase and Peter K. Endress 1998 A Combined Cladistic Analysis of Angiosperms Using rbcL and Non-Molecular Data Sets Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 85 (1) 137-214
  3. Newman, Mark,Sounthone Ketphanh, Bouakhaykhone Svengsuksa, Philip Thomas, Khamphone Sengdala, Vichith Lamxay, Kate Armstrong 2007 A Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Lao PDR Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh ISBN 978-1-906129-04-0
  4. Ohashi, Hiroyoshi 2009 Bunzo Hayata and His Contributions to the Flora of Taiwan. Taiwania 54(1) 1-27
  5. Peng, Ching-I 1978 Some new records for the Flora of Taiwan Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 19(1) 83-86
  6. Peng Ching-I, Shiou-Fen Yen and Ji-Yui Guo 1986 Notes on the Chromosome Cytology of Some Rare, Threatened, or Endangered Plants of Taiwan (I) Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 27(2): 219-235
  7. Qiu, Yin-Long, Olena Dombrovska, Jungho Lee, Libo Li, Barbara A. Whitlock, Fabiana Bernasconi-Quadroni, Joshua S. Rest, et al. 2005. Phylogenetic analyses of basal angiosperms based on nine plastid, mitochondrial, and nuclear genes. International Journal of Plant Sciences 166(5): 815-842.
  8. Severinghaus, Sheldon and Charles E. DeVol 1974 Note on the distribution of Taiwan Beech Taiwania 19(2) 235-237
  9. Shaheen, Hamayun, Shujaul Mulk Khan, David M. Harper, Zahid Ullah, and Rizwana Allem Qureshi 2011 Species Diversity, Community Structure, and Distribution Patterns in Western Himalayan Alpine Pastures of Kashmir, Pakistan Mountain Research and Development 31(2):153-159
  10. Shi, Suhua,Yaqing Du,D. E. Boufford, Xun Gong, Yelin Huang, Hanghang He & Yang Zhong 2003 Phylogenetic position of Schnabelia, a genus endemic to China: Evidence from sequences of cpDNA matK gene and nrDNA ITS regions Chinese Science Bulletin 48(15) 1576-1580
  11. Shisode, S. B. and D. A. Patil 2011 Taxonomic and phylogenetic census of the Celastrales: A synthetic review Curr. Bot. 2(4): 36-43
  12. Sosnová, Monika, Rudyvan Diggelen, Jitka Klimešová 2010 Distribution of clonal growth forms in wetlands Aquatic Botany 92(1) 33-39
  13. Starr, Forest, Kim Starr, and Lloyd L. Loope 2010 New plant records from the Hawaiian Archipelago Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 107:61-68
  14. Steinmanna, K., H. P. Linder, N. E. Zimmermanna 2009 Modelling plant species richness using functional groups Ecological Modelling 220 962-967
  15. Su, Horng-Jye 2000 Contribution to a revised orchid flora of Taiwan (IV). Taiwania 45(3) 239-248
  16. Tamura, Minoru N., Shingchi Chen and Nicholas J. Turland 2000 A New Combination in Heteropolygonatum (Convallariaceae, Polygonateae) NOVON 10(2): 156-157
  17. Thaman, R. R. and Malosi Samuelu 2016 Vascular Plants, vegetation and ethnobotany of Banaba (Ocean island), Republic of Kiribati Atoll Research Bulletin No. 609
  18. Turner, I. M., Y. W. Low, M. Rodda, K. M. Wong and D. J. Middleton 2018 The plant taxa of H. N. Ridley, 5. The Gentianales Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 70 (2): 307–395
  19. Van der Vossen, H. A. M. and M. Wessel 2000 Plant Resources of South-East Asia Stimulants 16 ISBN 90-5782-053-6
  20. Von Lampe, Maud, Gerd Jünger and Ssabine Tischew 2002 Morphological features of herbaceous perennials causing abundance in lignite mining areas
  21. Wu Ding, Hong Wang,Jin-Mei Lu, De-Zhu Li 2005 Comparative morphology of leaf epidermis in Parnassia (Parnassiaceae) from China Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica 43(3): 210–224
  22. Wu, S.-H., C.-H. Hsieh and M. Rejmánek. 2004b. Catalogue of the naturalized flora of Taiwan. Taiwania 49: 16-31.
  23. Wu, Shan-Huah, T. Y. Aleck Yang, Yung-Ching Teng, Chih-Yuan Chang, Kuoh-Cheng Yang and Chang-Fu Hsieh 2010 Insights of the Latest Naturalized Flora of Taiwan : Change in the Past Eight Years Taiwania 55(2): 139-159
  24. Yamashita, Jun and Minoru N. Tamura 2001 Karyotype analysis of two species of the Chinese epiphytic genus Heteropolygonatum (Convallariaceae-Polygonateae) Acta Phytotax Geobot. 51 (2): 147-153
  25. Yang, Y.-P., H.-Y. Liu and S.-Y. Lu. 1997. Concise vascular flora of Taiwan. 2: 352. Council of Agriculture, Taiwan.
  26. Yang, Y.-P., H.-Y. Liu, S.-Y. Lu and B.-L. Shih. 1998. Concise vascular flora of Taiwan. 3: 392. Council of Agriculture, Taiwan.
  27. Yang, Y.-P., H.-Y. Liu, S.-Y. Lu and B.-L. Shih. 1999. Concise vascular flora of Taiwan. 4: 432. Council of Agriculture, Taiwan.
  28. Yang, Y.-P., H.-Y. Liu and T.-P. Lin. 2001. Concise vascular flora of Taiwan. 5: 457. Council of Agriculture, Taiwan.
  29. Yang, Yuen-Po and Ho-Yih Liu 2002 Nomenclature Changes for Some Dicots of Taiwan Taiwania 47(2) 175-178
  30. Yang, Yuen-Po, Chun-kuei Liao, Mo-shih Tang, Chih-Kai Yang, Chiou-Yu Yeh 2009 Family and genus flora of Taiwan seed plants. Forestry Bureau, The Council of Agriculture, The Executive Yuan, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China ISBN 978-986-02-2316-3
  31. Yong, Jean W H, Chiou-Rong Sheue 2014 A Comparative Guide to the Asian Mangroves