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Viola tenuis Benth.
Viola adenothrix Hayata var. adenothrix
Viola adenothrix Hayata var. tsugitakaensis (Masam.) Wang & Huang
Viola confusa Champ. ex Benth.
Viola inconspicua Blume subsp. nagasakiensis (W. Becker) Wang & Huang

Violaceae Reference

  1. Dani, Ram S and Krishna K Shrestha 2004 Two new records of Viola L. (Violaceae) for Nepal Him J Sci 2 (3): 48-50
  2. Freitas leandro and Marlies Sazima 2003 Floral Biology and Pollination Mechanisms in Two Viola Species—From Nectar to Pollen Flowers? Ann Bot 91(3): 311-317
  3. Hama, Eisuke and Cunio Nackejima 1976 Notes on the violets of Japan J. Jap. Bot 55 (11): 339-344
  4. Hashimoto, Tamotsu 1987 Trigonocarpae Violets of Taiwan Annals of the Tsukuba Botanical Garden 6 1-7
  5. Huang, Su-Hua 2003 New Species of Viola from Yunnan Acta Botanica Yunnanica 25(4) 431-434
  6. Masood, Maria, Muhammad Arshad, Saira Asif and Sunbal Khalil Chaudhari 2014 Viola canescens: Herbal Wealth to Be Conserved Journal of Botany 6 P.
  7. Ning, Zu-Lin, Zhen-Xin Zeng, Ling Chen, Bing-Qiang Xu and Jing-Ping Liao 2012 Viola jinggangshanensis (Violaceae), a new species from Jiangxi, China Annales Botanici Fennici 49 (5/6) 383-386
  8. Peng, Ching-I and Yueh-Fong Chen 1985 Hybanthus Jacq. (Violaceae), a New Generic Record for the Flora of Taiwan Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 26 (2) 213-220
  9. Shrestha, K. K., K. N. Paudyalz and D. K. Ferguson 2005 Pollen Morphology of Himalayan Kola (Violaceae) [file:///C:/Users/wenlin/Downloads/160-Manuscript-237-1-10-20160627.pdf Nepal Journal of Science and Technology] 6 73-79
  10. Wang, Jenn-Che, Tseng-Chieng Huang 1990 Notes on the Flora of Taiwan (9) --- The Viola L. (Violaceae) Taiwania 35(1) 12-56
  11. Zhou, Jin-Song and Fu-Wu Xing 2007 Viola changii sp. nov. (Violaceae) from Guangdong, southern China Nordic Journal of Botany 25: 303-305

  1. 王庆瑞 1991 中国堇菜属植物新分类群 云南植物研究 13(3): 257-266
  2. 王庆瑞 1992 中国堇菜属植物分类群(续) 云南植物研究 14(4) 379-382
  3. 周勁松、邢福武 2007 中國堇菜屬美麗堇菜亞屬(堇菜科)植物分類學修訂 西北植物學報 27(5) 1017-1021
  4. 周劲松、龚琴、刑福武 2007 中国堇菜(堇菜科)两新异名 热带亚热带植物学报 15(4):366-368
  5. 周劲松、巫远坤、黎昌汉、邢福武 2007 广东堇菜属植物新记录 热带亚热带植物学报 15(5):455-456
  6. 李连方、尹祖棠 2000 堇菜属植物花粉及叶表皮超微形态多样性的研究 中国农业大学学报 5(3) : 6-12
  7. 邢福武、秦新生 2004 中国植物志堇菜科 Violaceae拾遗 华南农业大学学报(自然科学版) 25(1) 120-121
  8. 邢福武、黎昌汉 2004 堇菜属 (堇菜科)植物新资料 热带亚热带植物学报 12(5):475-476
  9. 邢福武, 秦新生 2004 中國植物志菫菜科Violaceae拾遺 華南農業大學學報 25(1) 120-121
  10. 孙雪芹,刘玫,孙天航,张欣欣,史传奇 2014 东北堇菜属植物叶形态结构的研究及其分类学价值的探讨 草业学报 23 (2): 223-234
  11. 陳又生 2006 中国堇菜属的分类修订 中國科學院研究生院(植物研究所)
  12. 梁冠欣,邢福武 2010 堇菜属组间的系统发育与亲缘关系 : 基于trn L-trn F、psbA-trnH、 rpL16、ITS序列, 细胞学以及形态学证据 云南植物研究 32(6): 477-488
  13. 黄素华 2003 云南堇菜属新种 云南植物研究 25(4): 431-434
  14. 潘雅书,邢福武 2012 长萼堇菜多倍体复合体种群的分布格局研究 植物科学学报 30(2) 147-152
  15. 龚琴、周劲松、张永夏、梁冠欣、陈红锋、邢福武 2010 国产堇菜属的分子系统学研究 热带亚热带植物学报 18(6):633-642
  16. 藤原 正人 and 笠原 恵 スミレ属の葉緑体 DNA を用いた分子系統解析に関する研究


Web Link

  1. Department of Botany & the U.S. National Herbarium 2017 The Plant Press vol 20 (2) Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History
  2. International Association for Vegetation Science 2009 Vegetation Processes and Human Impact in a Changing World 52nd INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM
  3. 17th International Workshop European Vegetation Survey 2008 Using phytosociological data to address ecological questions Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic

Books and Journals


  1. Arora, R. K. 2014 Diversity in underutilized plant species - an Asia-Pacific perspective Bioversity International
  2. Azan, Shakira Stephanie Elaine 2011Invasive aquatic plants and the aquarium and ornamental pond industries Theses and dissertations Ryerson University P. 818
  3. Chen, Xin, Hai He and Li-Bing Zhang 2015 A monograph of the Anisophylleaceae (Cucurbitales) with description of 18 new species of Anisophyllea Phytotaxa 229 (1):1-189
  4. Chiou, Chyi-Rong, Guo-Zhang Michael Song, Jui-Han Chien, Chang-Fu Hsieh, Jenn Che Wang, Ming-Yih Chen, Ho-Yih Liu, Ching-Long Yeh, Yue-Joe Hsia, and Tze-Ying Chen 2010 Altitudinal distribution patterns of plant species in Taiwan are mainly determined by the northeast monsoon rather than the heat retention mechanism of Massenerhebung Botanical Studies 51: 89-97
  5. Cornelissen, Johannes H. C., Yao-Bin Song, Fei-Hai, Yu Ming Dong 2014 Plant traits and ecosystem effects of clonality: a new research agenda Annals of Botany 114: 369–376
  6. Dai Chang-Feng et. 2008 The Research of Natural Resources of the Three Northern Islets Taiwanese Coral Feef Society Marine National Park
  7. Duke, Norman C., Jock Mackenzie, Apanie Wood 2012 A revision of mangrove plants of the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, Fiji, Tonga and Samoa Tropical Water & Aquatic Ecosystem Research
  8. Eckert, Christopher G. 1999 Clonal plant research: proliferation, integration, but not much evolution Am. J. Bot. 86(11) 1649-1654
  9. Editorial Commitee fo the Flora of Taiwan 1994 Flora of Taiwan, Second edition. Volume one, Detparment of Botany, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 106, the Republic of China, ISBN 957-9019-52-5
  10. Editorial Commitee fo the Flora of Taiwan 1996 Flora of Taiwan, Second edition. Volume Two, Detparment of Botany, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 106, the Republic of China, ISBN 957-9019-92-4
  11. Editorial Commitee fo the Flora of Taiwan 1993 Flora of Taiwan, Second edition. Volume Three, Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 106, the Republic of China, ISBN 957-9019-92-4
  12. Editorial Commitee fo the Flora of Taiwan 1998 Flora of Taiwan, Second edition. Volume Four, Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 106, the Republic of China, ISBN 957-9019-92-4
  13. Editorial Commitee fo the Flora of Taiwan 2000 Flora of Taiwan, Second edition. Volume Five, Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 106, the Republic of China, ISBN 957-9019-92-4
  14. Endress, Peter K. 2010 The evolution of floral biology in basal angiosperms Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 365(1539): 411–421
  15. Gradstein, S. Robbert, Jürgen Homeier and Dirk Gansert 2008 The Tropical Mountain Forest Patterns and Processes in a Biodiversity Hotspot Biodiversity and Ecology Series 2
  16. Giesen, Wim Stephan Wulffraat, Max Zieren and Liesbeth Scholten 2006 Mangrove Guidebook for Southeast Asia FAO and Wetlands International ISBN: 974-7946-85-8
  17. Grande, J. R., J. Kallunki, M. M. Arbo, P. E. Berry, O. Huber and R. Riina 2012 Botanical novelties from Sierra de Maigualida, southern Venezuela II. Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 69(1): 7-19
  18. Herben, Tomáš, Zuzana Nováková, Jitka Klimešová 2014 Clonal growth and plant species abundance Annals of Botany 114: 377–388
  19. Hsieh, Chang-Fu 1989 Structure and Floristic Composition of the Beech Forest in Taiwan Taiwania 34(1) 28-44
  20. Kaufmann, Eva 2003 Southeast Asian Ant-Gardens- Diversity, ecology, ecosystematic significance, and evolution of mutualistic ant-epiphyte associations - Universitätsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg
  21. Keng, Hsuan 1973 Nomenclatural Notes on Wu P'I Ch'a or the Black-barked Tea Plant Taiwania 18(1) 55-56
  22. Kitamura 1941 An Enureration of Compositae of Formosa Acta phytotaxonomica et geobotanica 10(1) 15-33
  23. Klimešová, Jitka, Jiří Doležal and Marek Sammul 2011 Evolutionary and organismic constraints on the relationship between spacer length and environmental conditions in clonal plants Oikos 120: 1110–1120
  24. Kron, Kathleen A. 1996 Phylogenetic Relationships of Empetraceae, Epacridaceae, Ericaceae, Monotropaceae, and Pyrolaceae: Evidence from Nuclear Ribosomal 18s Sequence Data Ann. Bot. 77(4): 293-303
  25. Kuoh, Chang-Sheng, Gow-Ing Liao and Ming-Yih Chen 1999 Two New Naturalized Grasses in Taiwan. Taiwania 44(4) 514-519
  26. Kuoh, Chang-Sheng and Chih-Hui Chen 2000 New Naturalized Grasses in Taiwan. Taiwania 45(4) 328-333
  27. Liu, Y. C. and C. H. Ou 1974 New additions to the flora of Taiwan. Quarterly journal of Chinese forestry 7(4): 150-151.
  28. Löve, Áskell and Ebba Kjellqvist 1974 Cytotaxonomy of Spanish plants. III Dicotyledons: Salicaceae-Rosaceae Lagascalia 4(1): 3-32


  1. Ma, Jin-Shuang 2010 Nomenclatural notes on alien vascular plants in north american originated from east asia Acta Botanica Yunnanica 32(1): 14-24
  2. Nandi, Owi I., Mark W. Chase and Peter K. Endress 1998 A Combined Cladistic Analysis of Angiosperms Using rbcL and Non-Molecular Data Sets Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 85 (1) 137-214
  3. Newman, Mark,Sounthone Ketphanh, Bouakhaykhone Svengsuksa, Philip Thomas, Khamphone Sengdala, Vichith Lamxay, Kate Armstrong 2007 A Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Lao PDR Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh ISBN 978-1-906129-04-0
  4. Ohashi, Hiroyoshi 2009 Bunzo Hayata and His Contributions to the Flora of Taiwan. Taiwania 54(1) 1-27
  5. Peng, Ching-I 1978 Some new records for the Flora of Taiwan Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 19(1) 83-86
  6. Peng Ching-I, Shiou-Fen Yen and Ji-Yui Guo 1986 Notes on the Chromosome Cytology of Some Rare, Threatened, or Endangered Plants of Taiwan (I) Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 27(2): 219-235
  7. Qiu, Yin-Long, Olena Dombrovska, Jungho Lee, Libo Li, Barbara A. Whitlock, Fabiana Bernasconi-Quadroni, Joshua S. Rest, et al. 2005. Phylogenetic analyses of basal angiosperms based on nine plastid, mitochondrial, and nuclear genes. International Journal of Plant Sciences 166(5): 815-842.
  8. Severinghaus, Sheldon and Charles E. DeVol 1974 Note on the distribution of Taiwan Beech Taiwania 19(2) 235-237
  9. Shaheen, Hamayun, Shujaul Mulk Khan, David M. Harper, Zahid Ullah, and Rizwana Allem Qureshi 2011 Species Diversity, Community Structure, and Distribution Patterns in Western Himalayan Alpine Pastures of Kashmir, Pakistan Mountain Research and Development 31(2):153-159
  10. Shi, Suhua,Yaqing Du,D. E. Boufford, Xun Gong, Yelin Huang, Hanghang He & Yang Zhong 2003 Phylogenetic position of Schnabelia, a genus endemic to China: Evidence from sequences of cpDNA matK gene and nrDNA ITS regions Chinese Science Bulletin 48(15) 1576-1580
  11. Shisode, S. B. and D. A. Patil 2011 Taxonomic and phylogenetic census of the Celastrales: A synthetic review Curr. Bot. 2(4): 36-43
  12. Sosnová, Monika, Rudyvan Diggelen, Jitka Klimešová 2010 Distribution of clonal growth forms in wetlands Aquatic Botany 92(1) 33-39
  13. Starr, Forest, Kim Starr, and Lloyd L. Loope 2010 New plant records from the Hawaiian Archipelago Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 107:61-68
  14. Steinmanna, K., H. P. Linder, N. E. Zimmermanna 2009 Modelling plant species richness using functional groups Ecological Modelling 220 962-967
  15. Su, Horng-Jye 2000 Contribution to a revised orchid flora of Taiwan (IV). Taiwania 45(3) 239-248
  16. Tamura, Minoru N., Shingchi Chen and Nicholas J. Turland 2000 A New Combination in Heteropolygonatum (Convallariaceae, Polygonateae) NOVON 10(2): 156-157
  17. Thaman, R. R. and Malosi Samuelu 2016 Vascular Plants, vegetation and ethnobotany of Banaba (Ocean island), Republic of Kiribati Atoll Research Bulletin No. 609
  18. Turner, I. M., Y. W. Low, M. Rodda, K. M. Wong and D. J. Middleton 2018 The plant taxa of H. N. Ridley, 5. The Gentianales Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 70 (2): 307–395
  19. Van der Vossen, H. A. M. and M. Wessel 2000 Plant Resources of South-East Asia Stimulants 16 ISBN 90-5782-053-6
  20. Von Lampe, Maud, Gerd Jünger and Ssabine Tischew 2002 Morphological features of herbaceous perennials causing abundance in lignite mining areas
  21. Wu Ding, Hong Wang,Jin-Mei Lu, De-Zhu Li 2005 Comparative morphology of leaf epidermis in Parnassia (Parnassiaceae) from China Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica 43(3): 210–224
  22. Wu, S.-H., C.-H. Hsieh and M. Rejmánek. 2004b. Catalogue of the naturalized flora of Taiwan. Taiwania 49: 16-31.
  23. Wu, Shan-Huah, T. Y. Aleck Yang, Yung-Ching Teng, Chih-Yuan Chang, Kuoh-Cheng Yang and Chang-Fu Hsieh 2010 Insights of the Latest Naturalized Flora of Taiwan : Change in the Past Eight Years Taiwania 55(2): 139-159
  24. Yamashita, Jun and Minoru N. Tamura 2001 Karyotype analysis of two species of the Chinese epiphytic genus Heteropolygonatum (Convallariaceae-Polygonateae) Acta Phytotax Geobot. 51 (2): 147-153
  25. Yang, Y.-P., H.-Y. Liu and S.-Y. Lu. 1997. Concise vascular flora of Taiwan. 2: 352. Council of Agriculture, Taiwan.
  26. Yang, Y.-P., H.-Y. Liu, S.-Y. Lu and B.-L. Shih. 1998. Concise vascular flora of Taiwan. 3: 392. Council of Agriculture, Taiwan.
  27. Yang, Y.-P., H.-Y. Liu, S.-Y. Lu and B.-L. Shih. 1999. Concise vascular flora of Taiwan. 4: 432. Council of Agriculture, Taiwan.
  28. Yang, Y.-P., H.-Y. Liu and T.-P. Lin. 2001. Concise vascular flora of Taiwan. 5: 457. Council of Agriculture, Taiwan.
  29. Yang, Yuen-Po and Ho-Yih Liu 2002 Nomenclature Changes for Some Dicots of Taiwan Taiwania 47(2) 175-178
  30. Yang, Yuen-Po, Chun-kuei Liao, Mo-shih Tang, Chih-Kai Yang, Chiou-Yu Yeh 2009 Family and genus flora of Taiwan seed plants. Forestry Bureau, The Council of Agriculture, The Executive Yuan, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China ISBN 978-986-02-2316-3
  31. Yong, Jean W H, Chiou-Rong Sheue 2014 A Comparative Guide to the Asian Mangroves