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Cyperaceae Reference

  1. Alexander Vrijdaghs, Marc Reynders, Isabel Larridon, A. Muthama Muasya, Erik Smets, and Paul Goetghebeur 2009 Spikelet structure and development in Cyperoideae (Cyperaceae): a monopodial general model based on ontogenetic evidence Annals of Botany 105(4) 555-571
  2. Chen, S.-H. and M.-J. Wu. 2007. Notes on four newly naturalized plants in Taiwan. Taiwania 52: 59-69 / Cyperus esculentusCyperus eragrostisLaportea aestuans and Amaranthus dubius
  3. Hamlin, B. G. 1956 Key to the Genera of Cyperaceae in New Zealand Tuatara: 6(1) 27-36
  4. Ho, Tung-Chi, Ching-I Peng, Tzen-Yuh Chiang and Tsai-Wen Hsu 2011 A taxonomical study of the genus Medicago (Fabaceae) from Mt. Hohuan of Taiwan TW J. of Biodivers. 13 (4):333-344
  5. Julian R. Starr, Stephen A. Harris, and David A. Simpson 2008 Sedges : uses, diversity, and systematics of the Cyperaceae Chapter 12 Phylogeny of the unispicate taxa in Cyperaceae Tribe Cariceae II: The Limits of Uncinia Monographs in systematic botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 243-267 ISBNS 9781930723726
  6. Jung, Ming-Jer, Tien-Chuan Hsu and Shih-Wen Chung 2008 Notes on Two Newly Naturalized Plants in Taiwan Taiwania 53(2): 230-235 / Hypochaeris glabraKyllinga polyphylla
  7. Leong, Wai-Chao and Chang-Sheng Kuoh 2000 Two New Records of Scleria Bergius (Cyperaceae) in Taiwan Taiwania 45(4) 334-339 / Scleria laeviformis and Scleria scrobiculata
  8. Muasya, A. Muthama, David A. Simpson, G. Anthony Verboom, Paul Goetghebeur, Robert F. C. Naczi, Mark W. Chase and Erik Smets 2009 Phylogeny of Cyperaceae based on DNA sequence data: current progress and future prospects Bot. Rev. 75(1): 2-21
  9. Roalson, Eric H., J. Travis Columus and Elizabeth A. Fria 2001 Phylogenetic Relationships in Cariceae (Cyperaceae) Based on ITS (nrDNA) and trnT-L-F (cpDNA) Region Sequences: Assessment of Subgeneric and Sectional Relationships in Carex with Emphasis on Section Acrocystis Systematic Botany 26(2): 318-341
  10. Roalson, Eric H. 2008 A Synopsis of Chromosome Number Variation in the Cyperaceae Bot Rev 74(2):209-393
  11. Simpson, David A., A. Muthama Muasya, Marccus V. Alves, J. J. Bruhl, M. W. Chase, C. A. Furness, K. Ghamkhar, P. Goetghebeur, T. R. Hodkinson, A. D. Marchant, A. A. Reznicek, E. H. Roalson, E. Smets, J. R. Starr, W. W. Thomas, K. L. Wilson, & X. Zhang. 2007. Phylogeny of Cyperaceae based on DNA sequence data: a new rbcL analysis. Aliso 23: 72-83
  12. Smith, S. Galen, Eisuke Hayasaka 2002 New Combinations within North American Schoenoplectus smithii and S. purshianus (sect. Actaeogeton, Cyperaceae) and Comparison with Eastern Asian Allies NOVON 12: 106–111
  13. Smith, Selena Y., Marharet E. Collinson, David A. Simpson, Paul J. Rudall, Federica Marone and Marco Stampanoni 2009 Elucidating the affinities and habitat of ancient, widespread Cyperaceae: Volkeria messelensis gen. et sp. nov., a fossil mapanioid sedge from the Eocene of Europe Amer. J. Bot. 96(8): 1506-1518.
  14. Starr, Julian R., G. Gravel, Anne Bruneau, and A. Muthama Muasya. 2007. Phylogenetic implications of a unique 5.8S nrDNA insertion in Cyperaceae Aliso 23: 84-98
  15. Yang, Peizhi, Hongmei Zheng, Steven Larson, Yanjun Miao, Tianming Hu 2010 Phylogenetic relationships of eleven Kobresia accessions from the Tibetan plateau African Journal of Biotechnology 9(23): 3359-3367

  1. 郭長生 1974 台灣莎草科植物之系統分類(1)花部形態之研究 師大生物學報 9 47-57
  2. 郭長生 1978 台灣產荸薺屬的掃描電子顯微鏡研究 師大生物學報 13 57-60
  3. 唐进,汪发缵 1962 对中国植物志第十一卷莎草科(藨草族 - 珍珠茅族)的一些命名方面的增订 植物学报 10(2): 171-177
  4. 张树仁 2001 云南珍珠茅属植物 云南植物研究 23(4) 428-432
  5. 刘剑秋 1997 国产湖瓜草球柱草芙兰草三属果皮微形态特征初探 西北植物学报 17(1) 78-82
  6. 刘剑秋 1999 中国荸荠属植物果皮微形态特征及其分类学上的意义 应用与环境生物学报 5(6) 578-584
  7. 杨永昌,黄荣福 1982 用数字和形态分类学方法研究扁穗苔属的等级问题 云南植物研究 4(4) 317-327

Carex Reference

  1. Escudero, Marcial, Virginia Valcárel, Pablo Vargas & Modesto Luceño 2008 Evolution in Carex L. sect. Spirostachyae (Cyperaceae): a molecular and cytogenetic approach Organisms, Diversity & Evolution 7 (4): 271-291.
  2. Escudero, Marcial, Andrew L. Hipp, Modesto Luceño 2010 Karyotype stability and predictors of chromosome number variation in sedges: A study in Carex section Spirostachyae (Cyperaceae) Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 57 353–363
  3. Ford, Bruce A., Robert F. C. Naczi and Julian R. Starr. 2008 Sedges : uses, diversity, and systematics of the Cyperaceae Chapter 11 Carex Sect.Phyllostachyae: The Value of a Multidisciplinary. Approach in Conducting. Systematics Studies in Sedges. Monographs in systematic botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 227-242 ISBNS 9781930723726
  4. Hendrichs, M., F. Oberwinkler, D. Begerow and R. Bauer 2004 Carex, subgenus Carex (Cyperaceae) – A phylogenetic approach using ITS sequences Plant Syst. Evol. 246(1-2): 89–107
  5. Hendrichs, M., S. Michalski, D. Begerow, F. Oberwinkler, and F. H. Hellwig 2004 Phylogenetic relationships in Carex, subgenus Vignea (Cyperaceae), based on ITS sequences Plant Syst. Evol. 246(1-2): 109–125
  6. Hipp, Andrew L., Anton A. Reznicek, Paul E. Rothrock & Jaime A. Weber 2006 Phylogeny and classification of Carex section Ovales (Cyperaceae) Int. J. Plant Sci. 167(5):1029–1048
  7. Jin Xiao-Feng, Chao-Zong Zheng, Bing-Yang Ding 2004 New taxa of Carex (Cyperaceae) from Zhejiang, China Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica 42(6): 541–550
  8. Jin, Xiao-Feng, Chao-Zong Zheng 2008 Carex damiaoshanensis X. F. Jin & C. Z. Zheng, a new species of Cyperaceae from Guangxi, China Journal of Systematics and Evolution 46(2): 226–229
  9. Liao, Chun-Kuei, Fu-Shan Chou, Tsai-Wen Hsu 2016 Carex echinata Murray (section Stellulatae: Cyperaceae), a newly recorded sedge in Taiwan Taiwan J. For. Sci. 31(2):143-147
  10. Song, Chao, Hong Wang and Xiao-Feng Jin 2008 A New Subspecies of Carex arisanensis (Cyperaceae) from Zhejiang, China Annales Botanici Fennici 45(2):156-158
  11. Starr, Julian R., Randall J. Bayer, and Bruce A. Ford 1999 The phylogenetic position of Carex section Phyllostachys and its implications for phylogeny and subgeneric circumscription in Carex (Cyperaceae) American Journal of Botany 86(4):563-577
  12. Starr, Julian R., & Bruce A. Ford. 2001. The taxonomic and phylogenetic utility of vegetative anatomy and fruit epidermal silica bodies in Carex section Phyllostachys (Cyperaceae). Canadian Journal of Botany 79: 362-379
  13. Yang, Sheng-Zehn, Chien-Fan Chen 2005 Carex scaposa C. B. Clarke (Cyperaceae): A New Record to the Flora of Taiwan. Taiwania 50(3) 227-233

  1. 汪前生 1987 湖北苔草属新分类群 武汉植物研究 5(4) 343-345
  2. 金孝锋,章月皎,郑朝宗,丁炳扬 2007 福建薹草(莎草科)的考证 植物分类学报 45(3): 363-368
  3. 郭長生 1975 台灣產薹屬類植物(莎草科)之分佈 師大生物學報 10 43-51
  4. 梁松筠 1996 福建苔草属新分类群 植物分类学报 34 (1): 92-97

Cyperus Reference

  1. Chen, Shih-Huei and Ming-Jou Wu 2007 Notes on Four Newly Naturalized Plants in Taiwan Taiwania 52(1): 59-69 / Cyperus esculentusCyperus eragrostisLaportea aestuansAmaranthus dubius
  2. Chen, S.-H., S.-H. Weng and M.-J. Wu. 2008. The Umbrella Sedge in Taiwan. Taiwania 53: 311-315. / Cyperus involucratusCyperus alternifolius
  3. Chen, Shih-Huei , Shu-Huei Weng and Ming-Jou Wu 2009 Cyperus surinamensis Rottb., A newly naturalized sedge species in Taiwan. Taiwania 54: 399-402.

  1. 郭長生 1976 台灣產莎草屬植物的研究 師大生物學報 11 79-89

Fimbristylis Reference

  1. Chen, Shih-Huei, Shu-Yuan Chen, Ming-Jou Wu 2010 Rediscovery of Fimbristylis macassarensis Steud. (Cyperaceae) in Taiwan. Taiwan J For Sci 25(2): 185-189

  1. 郭長生 1977 台灣省飄拂草屬形態及分佈之研究 師大生物學報 12 79-88
  2. 刘剑秋、黄进华 1992 飘拂草属(Fimbristylis Vahl)果皮微形态特征的比较研究 福建师范大学学报 (自然科学版) 8(1) 75-82


Web Link

  1. Department of Botany & the U.S. National Herbarium 2017 The Plant Press vol 20 (2) Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History
  2. International Association for Vegetation Science 2009 Vegetation Processes and Human Impact in a Changing World 52nd INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM
  3. 17th International Workshop European Vegetation Survey 2008 Using phytosociological data to address ecological questions Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic

Books and Journals


  1. Arora, R. K. 2014 Diversity in underutilized plant species - an Asia-Pacific perspective Bioversity International
  2. Azan, Shakira Stephanie Elaine 2011Invasive aquatic plants and the aquarium and ornamental pond industries Theses and dissertations Ryerson University P. 818
  3. Chen, Xin, Hai He and Li-Bing Zhang 2015 A monograph of the Anisophylleaceae (Cucurbitales) with description of 18 new species of Anisophyllea Phytotaxa 229 (1):1-189
  4. Chiou, Chyi-Rong, Guo-Zhang Michael Song, Jui-Han Chien, Chang-Fu Hsieh, Jenn Che Wang, Ming-Yih Chen, Ho-Yih Liu, Ching-Long Yeh, Yue-Joe Hsia, and Tze-Ying Chen 2010 Altitudinal distribution patterns of plant species in Taiwan are mainly determined by the northeast monsoon rather than the heat retention mechanism of Massenerhebung Botanical Studies 51: 89-97
  5. Cornelissen, Johannes H. C., Yao-Bin Song, Fei-Hai, Yu Ming Dong 2014 Plant traits and ecosystem effects of clonality: a new research agenda Annals of Botany 114: 369–376
  6. Dai Chang-Feng et. 2008 The Research of Natural Resources of the Three Northern Islets Taiwanese Coral Feef Society Marine National Park
  7. Duke, Norman C., Jock Mackenzie, Apanie Wood 2012 A revision of mangrove plants of the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, Fiji, Tonga and Samoa Tropical Water & Aquatic Ecosystem Research
  8. Eckert, Christopher G. 1999 Clonal plant research: proliferation, integration, but not much evolution Am. J. Bot. 86(11) 1649-1654
  9. Editorial Commitee fo the Flora of Taiwan 1994 Flora of Taiwan, Second edition. Volume one, Detparment of Botany, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 106, the Republic of China, ISBN 957-9019-52-5
  10. Editorial Commitee fo the Flora of Taiwan 1996 Flora of Taiwan, Second edition. Volume Two, Detparment of Botany, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 106, the Republic of China, ISBN 957-9019-92-4
  11. Editorial Commitee fo the Flora of Taiwan 1993 Flora of Taiwan, Second edition. Volume Three, Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 106, the Republic of China, ISBN 957-9019-92-4
  12. Editorial Commitee fo the Flora of Taiwan 1998 Flora of Taiwan, Second edition. Volume Four, Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 106, the Republic of China, ISBN 957-9019-92-4
  13. Editorial Commitee fo the Flora of Taiwan 2000 Flora of Taiwan, Second edition. Volume Five, Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 106, the Republic of China, ISBN 957-9019-92-4
  14. Endress, Peter K. 2010 The evolution of floral biology in basal angiosperms Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 365(1539): 411–421
  15. Gradstein, S. Robbert, Jürgen Homeier and Dirk Gansert 2008 The Tropical Mountain Forest Patterns and Processes in a Biodiversity Hotspot Biodiversity and Ecology Series 2
  16. Giesen, Wim Stephan Wulffraat, Max Zieren and Liesbeth Scholten 2006 Mangrove Guidebook for Southeast Asia FAO and Wetlands International ISBN: 974-7946-85-8
  17. Grande, J. R., J. Kallunki, M. M. Arbo, P. E. Berry, O. Huber and R. Riina 2012 Botanical novelties from Sierra de Maigualida, southern Venezuela II. Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 69(1): 7-19
  18. Herben, Tomáš, Zuzana Nováková, Jitka Klimešová 2014 Clonal growth and plant species abundance Annals of Botany 114: 377–388
  19. Hsieh, Chang-Fu 1989 Structure and Floristic Composition of the Beech Forest in Taiwan Taiwania 34(1) 28-44
  20. Kaufmann, Eva 2003 Southeast Asian Ant-Gardens- Diversity, ecology, ecosystematic significance, and evolution of mutualistic ant-epiphyte associations - Universitätsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg
  21. Keng, Hsuan 1973 Nomenclatural Notes on Wu P'I Ch'a or the Black-barked Tea Plant Taiwania 18(1) 55-56
  22. Kitamura 1941 An Enureration of Compositae of Formosa Acta phytotaxonomica et geobotanica 10(1) 15-33
  23. Klimešová, Jitka, Jiří Doležal and Marek Sammul 2011 Evolutionary and organismic constraints on the relationship between spacer length and environmental conditions in clonal plants Oikos 120: 1110–1120
  24. Kron, Kathleen A. 1996 Phylogenetic Relationships of Empetraceae, Epacridaceae, Ericaceae, Monotropaceae, and Pyrolaceae: Evidence from Nuclear Ribosomal 18s Sequence Data Ann. Bot. 77(4): 293-303
  25. Kuoh, Chang-Sheng, Gow-Ing Liao and Ming-Yih Chen 1999 Two New Naturalized Grasses in Taiwan. Taiwania 44(4) 514-519
  26. Kuoh, Chang-Sheng and Chih-Hui Chen 2000 New Naturalized Grasses in Taiwan. Taiwania 45(4) 328-333
  27. Liu, Y. C. and C. H. Ou 1974 New additions to the flora of Taiwan. Quarterly journal of Chinese forestry 7(4): 150-151.
  28. Löve, Áskell and Ebba Kjellqvist 1974 Cytotaxonomy of Spanish plants. III Dicotyledons: Salicaceae-Rosaceae Lagascalia 4(1): 3-32


  1. Ma, Jin-Shuang 2010 Nomenclatural notes on alien vascular plants in north american originated from east asia Acta Botanica Yunnanica 32(1): 14-24
  2. Nandi, Owi I., Mark W. Chase and Peter K. Endress 1998 A Combined Cladistic Analysis of Angiosperms Using rbcL and Non-Molecular Data Sets Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 85 (1) 137-214
  3. Newman, Mark,Sounthone Ketphanh, Bouakhaykhone Svengsuksa, Philip Thomas, Khamphone Sengdala, Vichith Lamxay, Kate Armstrong 2007 A Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Lao PDR Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh ISBN 978-1-906129-04-0
  4. Ohashi, Hiroyoshi 2009 Bunzo Hayata and His Contributions to the Flora of Taiwan. Taiwania 54(1) 1-27
  5. Peng, Ching-I 1978 Some new records for the Flora of Taiwan Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 19(1) 83-86
  6. Peng Ching-I, Shiou-Fen Yen and Ji-Yui Guo 1986 Notes on the Chromosome Cytology of Some Rare, Threatened, or Endangered Plants of Taiwan (I) Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 27(2): 219-235
  7. Qiu, Yin-Long, Olena Dombrovska, Jungho Lee, Libo Li, Barbara A. Whitlock, Fabiana Bernasconi-Quadroni, Joshua S. Rest, et al. 2005. Phylogenetic analyses of basal angiosperms based on nine plastid, mitochondrial, and nuclear genes. International Journal of Plant Sciences 166(5): 815-842.
  8. Severinghaus, Sheldon and Charles E. DeVol 1974 Note on the distribution of Taiwan Beech Taiwania 19(2) 235-237
  9. Shaheen, Hamayun, Shujaul Mulk Khan, David M. Harper, Zahid Ullah, and Rizwana Allem Qureshi 2011 Species Diversity, Community Structure, and Distribution Patterns in Western Himalayan Alpine Pastures of Kashmir, Pakistan Mountain Research and Development 31(2):153-159
  10. Shi, Suhua,Yaqing Du,D. E. Boufford, Xun Gong, Yelin Huang, Hanghang He & Yang Zhong 2003 Phylogenetic position of Schnabelia, a genus endemic to China: Evidence from sequences of cpDNA matK gene and nrDNA ITS regions Chinese Science Bulletin 48(15) 1576-1580
  11. Shisode, S. B. and D. A. Patil 2011 Taxonomic and phylogenetic census of the Celastrales: A synthetic review Curr. Bot. 2(4): 36-43
  12. Sosnová, Monika, Rudyvan Diggelen, Jitka Klimešová 2010 Distribution of clonal growth forms in wetlands Aquatic Botany 92(1) 33-39
  13. Starr, Forest, Kim Starr, and Lloyd L. Loope 2010 New plant records from the Hawaiian Archipelago Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 107:61-68
  14. Steinmanna, K., H. P. Linder, N. E. Zimmermanna 2009 Modelling plant species richness using functional groups Ecological Modelling 220 962-967
  15. Su, Horng-Jye 2000 Contribution to a revised orchid flora of Taiwan (IV). Taiwania 45(3) 239-248
  16. Tamura, Minoru N., Shingchi Chen and Nicholas J. Turland 2000 A New Combination in Heteropolygonatum (Convallariaceae, Polygonateae) NOVON 10(2): 156-157
  17. Thaman, R. R. and Malosi Samuelu 2016 Vascular Plants, vegetation and ethnobotany of Banaba (Ocean island), Republic of Kiribati Atoll Research Bulletin No. 609
  18. Turner, I. M., Y. W. Low, M. Rodda, K. M. Wong and D. J. Middleton 2018 The plant taxa of H. N. Ridley, 5. The Gentianales Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 70 (2): 307–395
  19. Van der Vossen, H. A. M. and M. Wessel 2000 Plant Resources of South-East Asia Stimulants 16 ISBN 90-5782-053-6
  20. Von Lampe, Maud, Gerd Jünger and Ssabine Tischew 2002 Morphological features of herbaceous perennials causing abundance in lignite mining areas
  21. Wu Ding, Hong Wang,Jin-Mei Lu, De-Zhu Li 2005 Comparative morphology of leaf epidermis in Parnassia (Parnassiaceae) from China Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica 43(3): 210–224
  22. Wu, S.-H., C.-H. Hsieh and M. Rejmánek. 2004b. Catalogue of the naturalized flora of Taiwan. Taiwania 49: 16-31.
  23. Wu, Shan-Huah, T. Y. Aleck Yang, Yung-Ching Teng, Chih-Yuan Chang, Kuoh-Cheng Yang and Chang-Fu Hsieh 2010 Insights of the Latest Naturalized Flora of Taiwan : Change in the Past Eight Years Taiwania 55(2): 139-159
  24. Yamashita, Jun and Minoru N. Tamura 2001 Karyotype analysis of two species of the Chinese epiphytic genus Heteropolygonatum (Convallariaceae-Polygonateae) Acta Phytotax Geobot. 51 (2): 147-153
  25. Yang, Y.-P., H.-Y. Liu and S.-Y. Lu. 1997. Concise vascular flora of Taiwan. 2: 352. Council of Agriculture, Taiwan.
  26. Yang, Y.-P., H.-Y. Liu, S.-Y. Lu and B.-L. Shih. 1998. Concise vascular flora of Taiwan. 3: 392. Council of Agriculture, Taiwan.
  27. Yang, Y.-P., H.-Y. Liu, S.-Y. Lu and B.-L. Shih. 1999. Concise vascular flora of Taiwan. 4: 432. Council of Agriculture, Taiwan.
  28. Yang, Y.-P., H.-Y. Liu and T.-P. Lin. 2001. Concise vascular flora of Taiwan. 5: 457. Council of Agriculture, Taiwan.
  29. Yang, Yuen-Po and Ho-Yih Liu 2002 Nomenclature Changes for Some Dicots of Taiwan Taiwania 47(2) 175-178
  30. Yang, Yuen-Po, Chun-kuei Liao, Mo-shih Tang, Chih-Kai Yang, Chiou-Yu Yeh 2009 Family and genus flora of Taiwan seed plants. Forestry Bureau, The Council of Agriculture, The Executive Yuan, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China ISBN 978-986-02-2316-3
  31. Yong, Jean W H, Chiou-Rong Sheue 2014 A Comparative Guide to the Asian Mangroves