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Rubiaceae Reference


  1. Alejandro, G. D. and S. Liede 2003 The Philippine Rubiaceae genera: updated synopsis in intkey databases of the delta system Blumea 48 (2): 261-277
  2. Alejandro, Grecebio Jonathan D. 2007 The Current Status of the Philippine Rubiaceae Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology 1 (1)
  3. Ali, S. J, and E. Robbrecht 1991 Remarks on the tropical Asian and Australian taxa included in Diplospora or Tricalysia (Rubiaceae — Ixoroideae — Gardenieae) Blumea 35(2), 279–305
  4. Andreasen, Katarina and Birgitta Bremer 2000 Combined phylogenetic analysis in the Rubiaceae-Ixoroideae: morphology, nuclear and chloroplast DNA data American Journal of Botany 87(11):1731-1748
  5. Arriola, A. H., P. D. Camacho, M. J. A. Calaramo and G. J. D. Alejandro 2015 Pyrostria triflora , a new species of Vanguerieae (Rubiaceae) from Luzon, Philippines Bangladesh J. Plant Taxon. 22 (1): 55–58
  6. Bakhuizen van den Brink, Jr., R. C. 1975 A Synoptical Key to the Genera of the Rubiaceae of Thailand Thai Forest Bulletin (Botany) 9: 15-55
  7. Banag, Cecilia Illiscupides, Danilo Tandang, Ulrich Meve, Sigrid Liede-Schumann 2015 Two new species of Ixora (Ixoroideae, Rubiaceae) endemic to the Philippines Phytotaxa 202 (2): 155–160
  8. Banag, Cecilia I., Arnaud Mouly, Grecebio Jonathan D. Alejandro, Birgitta Bremer, Ulrich Meve, Guido W. Grimm and Sigrid Liede-Schumann 2017 Ixora (Rubiaceae) on the Philippines - crossroad or cradle? BMC Evolutionary Biology 17:131
  9. Bremekamp, C. E. B. 1940 On Urophyllum Wall. (Rubiaceae) and its nearest allies Recueil des Travaux Botaniques Neerlandais 171-197
  10. Bremer, Birgitta 1989 The genus Argostemma (Rubiaceae-Argostemmateae) in Borneo Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 76 (1) 7-49
  11. Bremer, Birgitta 2009 A Review of Molecular Phylogenetic Studies of Rubiaceae 1 of the Missouri Botanical Garden 96 (1):4-26
  12. Bremer, Birgitta and Torsten Eriksson 2009 Time tree of Rubiaceae: phylogeny and dating the family, subfamilies, amd tribes Int. J. Plant Sci. 170(6):766–793
  13. Chang, Ching-en 1981 An Eumeration of the Woody Plants of Botel Tobago J. Phytogeogr. Taxon. 29 (1): 1-21
  14. Chang, Kun-Cheng, Yen-Hsueh Tseng, Chin-Chiang Wang, Shu-Lin Deng, Chiu-Mei WANG 2008 Note on Neanotis (Rubiaceae) in Taiwan. Taiwan Journal of Forestry Science 23(3): 271-277.
  15. Chantaranothai, Pranom 2018 Nomenclatural notes on the genus Schizomussaenda H. L. Li (Rubiaceae) Thai For. Bull (Bot.) 46 (1): 58-61
  16. Chao, Jew-Ming 1966 The Taiwan species of Rubia (Rubiaceae) BioFormosa 1:46-51
  17. Chavez1, Jayson G., Ulrich Meve and Grecebio Jonathan D. Alejandro1 2012 New Combinations in Rothmannia (Rubiaceae) and the Establishment of the Genus in the Philippine Flora Philippine Science Letters 5 (2): 216-223
  18. Chaw, S. M., V. V. Sivarajan 1989 Seed coat micromorphology of some Asiatic Spermacoceae (Rubiaceae) Bot. Bull. Academia Sinica 30(1) 15-24
  19. Chen, Junhao, Khoon Meng Wong, Antony van der Ent and Hugh Tiang Wah Tan 2014 Nine new species of Timonius (Rubiaceae) from Kinabalu Park, Borneo Phytotaxa 181 (3): 138–150
  20. Chen, Junhao, Hugh T. W. Tan and K. M. Wong 2015 A revision of Timonius (Rubiaceae) in Kinabalu Park, Borneo, with notes on typification and species distinction Plant Ecology and Evolution 148 (3): 420–430
  21. Chou, Fu-Shan, Chih-Kai Yang and Chun-Kuei Liao 2006 Taxonomic Status of Ophiorrhiza michelloides (Masam.) X. R. Lo (Rubiaceae) in Taiwan Taiwania 51(2): 143-147
  22. Church, Sheri A. and Douglas R. Taylor. 2005 Speciation and hybridization among Houstonia (Rubiaceae) species: The influence of polyploidy on reticulate evolution American Journal of Botany 92(8): 1372–1380
  23. Corrêa, Andréa Macêdo and Eliana Regina Forni-Martins 2004 Chromosomal studies of species of Rubiaceae (A. L. de Jussieu) from the Brazilian cerrado CARYOLOGIA 57(3) 250-258
  24. Davis, Aaron P., Diane Bridson, Charlie E. Jarvis and Rafaël Herman Anna Govaerts 2001 The typification and characterization of the genus Psychotria L. (Rubiaceae) Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 135 (1): 35–42
  25. Davis, Arron P., Rafel Govaerts, Diane M. Bridson and Piet Sstoffelen 2006 An annotated taxonomic conspectus of the genus Coffea (Rubiaceae) Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 152 465–512
  26. Delprete, Piero G. and Joseph H. Kirkbride, Jr. 2008 Clarification of Borreria gymnocephala, Diodia gymnocephala, Diodia schumannii, Borreria flavovirens, and Spermacoce schumannii (Rubiaceae) Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 2(1) 305-308
  27. Dessein, Steven, Helga Ochoterena, Petra De Block, Frederic Lens, Elmar Robbrecht, Peter Schols, Erik Smets, Stefan Vinckier, and Suzy Huysmans 2005 Palynological Characters and Their Phylogenetic Signal in Rubiaceae The Botanical Review 71(3):354-414
  28. Ehrendorfer, Friedrich 2010 New and Critical Taxa of Rubia and Galium (Rubiaceae, Rubieae) for the Flora of China Novon 20(3):268-277
  29. Gao, Yi-Ding, Rui-Jiang Wang and Ching-I Peng 2010 Diodia teres Walt. (Rubiaceae), a Newly Recorded Weed in Fujian Taiwania 55(2): 177-179
  30. Groeninckx, Inge, Steven Dessein, Helga Ochoterena, Claes Persson, Timothy J. Motley, Jesper Kårehed, Birgitta Bremer, Suzy Huysmans, and Erik Smets 2009 Phylogeny of the Herbaceous Tribe Spermacoceae (Rubiaceae) Based on Plastid DNA Data Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 96(1):109-132
  31. Heng, Li 1999 A New Species of Paederia (Rubiaceae) from China Novon 9(2): 220
  32. Holm, Theo. 1907 Rubiaceae: Anatomical Studies of North American Representatives of Cephalanthus, Oldenlandia, Houstonia, Mitchella, Diodia, and Galium Botanical Gazette 43(3) 153-186
  33. Hsieh, Chang-Fu and Shu-Miaw Chaw 1987 Diodia virginiana L. (Rubiaceae) in Hsinchu: New to Taiwan Bot. Bull. Academia Sinica 28(1) 43-48
  34. Hsieh, Tsung-Hsin and Po-Yi Chiang 2010 Galium paradoxum Maxim. (Rubiaceae), a newly recorded plant in Taiwan Taiwania 55(2) 192-194
  35. Hsu, Chien-Chang 1973 Some Noteworthy Plants Found in Taiwan Taiwania 18(1) 62-72 / Gomphrena celosioidesCoronopus didymusCuphea carthagenensisPlumbago zeylanicaBorreria latifoliaBorreria laevisAmbrosia elatiorGaillardia pulchellaGalinsoga parvifloraSenecio vulgarisSolidago altissimaNajas marinaNajas minorNajas indicaPanicum dichotomiflorumPaspalum virgatum
  36. Hsu, Tian-Chuan, and Zhi-Hao Chen 2017 Scleromitrion sirayanum (Rubiaceae: Spermacoceae), a new species of the Hedyotis-Oldenlandia complex in Taiwan Taiwania 62(2): 151‒156
  37. Huang S. F. and T.C. Huang. 1997 Notes on the Flora of Taiwan (27) The Genus Argostemma Wall.(Rubiaceae). Taiwania 42(1): 1-7.
  38. Huang, Tseng-Chieng, Shing-Fan Huang, Kuoh-Cheng Yanf 1989 Notes on the Flora of Taiwan (3)--- The miscellaneous plants Taiwania 34(1) 45-53 / Epithema brunonis var. fasciculataTheligonum formosanumRotala wallichiiEdsmanthus virgatusandParis fargesii var. brevipetalata
  39. James, Tosh, Aaron P. Davis, Steven Dessein, Petra De Block, Suzy Huysmans, Mike F. Fay, Erik Smets and Elmar Robbrech 2009 Phylogeny of Tricalysia (Rubiaceae) and its Relationships with Allied Genera Based on Plastid DNA Data: Resurrection of the Genus Empogona Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 96 (1): 194-213
  40. Johansson, J. T. 1989 Revision of the genus Rennellia Korth. (Rubiaceae-Rubioideae) Blumea 34 3-19
  41. Judkevich, Marina D., Roberto M. Salas and Ana M. Gonzalez 2017 Colleters in American Spermacoceae Genera (Rubiaceae): Morphoanatomical and Evolutionary Aspects Int. J. Plant Sci. 178 (5): 378–397
  42. Jung, Ming-Jer, Shin-Ming Ku and Ching-I Peng 2011 Oldenlandiopsis Terell & W. H. Lewis (Rubiaceae), a Newly Recorded Genus in Taiwan Taiwania 56(1) 58-61
  43. Kårehed, Jesper and Birgitta Bremer 2007 The systematics of Knoxieae (Rubiaceae)—molecular data and their taxonomic consequences Taxon 56 (4): 1051-1076
  44. Kåreheda,, Jesper, Inge Groeninckxb, Steven Desseinc, Timothy J. Motleyd, Birgitta Bremer 2008 The phylogenetic utility of chloroplast and nuclear DNA markers and the phylogeny of the Rubiaceae tribe Spermacoceae Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 49(3) 843–866
  45. Kesonbua, Wirot and Pranom Chantaranothai 2008 A checklist of the genus Tarenna Gaertn. (Rubiaceae) in Thailand THAI FOR. BULL. (BOT.) 36: 18–45
  46. Kesonbua, Wirot and Pranom Chantaranothai 2013 The genus Morinda (Rubiaceae) in Thailand ScienceAsia 39: 331–339
  47. Khushbu, Chauhan, Patel Anar, Patel Mayuree, Macwan Carol, Solanki Roshni, Adeshara Subodh. 2010 Paederia foetida Linn. As a potential medicinal plant : A review Journal of Pharmacy Research 3(12): 3135-3137
  48. Kitagawa, Masao 1934 Contributio ad Cognitionem Florae Manshuricae IV Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 48 (573): 610-620
  49. Kliphuis, E. 1970 Cytotaxonomic notes on some Galium species, Galium silvaticum L., Galium aristatum L. and Galium schultesii Vest Botanical Museum and Herbarium 271-283
  50. Kliphuis E. 1983 Cytotaxonomic notes on some species of the gneus Galium collected in the Spain Lagascalia 11(2): 229-244
  51. Kliphuis E. 1984 Cytotaxonomie studies on Galium verum L. Botanica Helvetica 94/2 269-278
  52. Koek-Noorman, Jifke 1972 The wood anatomy of Gardenieae, Ixoreae and Mussaendeae (Rubiaceae) Acta Bot. Neerl. 21 (3): 301-320
  53. Kuanga, Yan-Feng, Bruce K. Kirchoff, Yuan-Jiang Tang, Yuan-Hui Liang, and Jing-Ping Liao. 2008. Palynological characters and their systematic significance in Naucleeae (Cinchonoideae, Rubiaceae). Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 151(3-4): 123-135
  54. Lewis, Walter H. and Royce L. Oliver 1974 Revision of Richardia (Rubiaceae) Brittonia 26(3):271-301
  55. Lin, Chang-Jung and Chien-Fan Chen 2013 Mitracarpus hirtus (L.) DC. (Rubiaceae), a Newly Naturalized Plant in Taiwan TW J. of Biodivers. 15 (2): 155 -161
  56. Low, Y. W. and K. M. Wong 2007 Two new species of Gardenia (Rubiaceae) from Borneo and notes on Gardenia pterocalyx Edinburgh Journal of Botany 64 (1): 25-36
  57. Makino, T. 1903 Observations on the Flora of Japan. (Continued from p. 62.) Bot. Mag. Tokyo 17 (194): 70-80
  58. Malcomber, Simon T. 2002 Phylogeny of Gaertnera Lam. (Rubiaceae) based on multiple DNA markers: evidence of a rapid radiation in a widespread, morphologically diverse genus [Evolution] 56 (1): 42–57
  59. Manns, Ulrika, Niklas Wikström, Charlotte M. Taylor and Birgitta Bremer 2012 Historical biogeography of the predominantly neotropical subfamily Cinchonoideae (Rubiaceae): into or out of America? Int. J. Plant Sci. 173(3):261–289
  60. Mikhama, K. and P. Sirisant 2016 The last and largest of Cephalanthus tetrandra freshwater swamp forest in Northeast Thailand: Natural resource appreciation and management of local community International Journal of Agricultural Technology 12 (3): 429-438
  61. Mouly, Arnaud, Sylvain G. Razafimandimbison, Anbar Khodabandeh and Birgitta Bremer 2009 Phylogeny and classification of the species-rich pantropical showy genus Ixora (Rubiaceae-Ixoreae) with indications of geographical monophyletic units and hybrids American Journal of Botany 96(3): 686–706
  62. Mustaqim, Wendy A., Hirmas F. Putra, Yulian Fakhrurrozi & Arifin S. D. Irsyam 2019 A new record of Euphorbia atoto (Euphorbiaceae) in Bangka Belitung and notes of Coptosapelta hammii (Rubiaceae) for Borneo J. Tropical Biology and Conservation 16: 155–163, 2019


  1. Nakamura, Koh, Shih-wen Chung, Goro Kokubugata, Tetsuo Denda, Masatsugu Yokota 2006 Phylogenetic systematics of the monotypic genus Hayataella (Rubiaceae) endemic to Taiwan J. Plant Research 119: 657-661
  2. Narasimhan, D., G. Gnanasekaran and Nehru Prabakaran 2011 Spermacoce remota Lam. (Rubiaceae)- A potential invasive weed of wetlands J. Econ. Taxon. Bot. 35 (4): 645-647
  3. Ordas, Jorge Anton D., Neil Alejandro A. Pinarok, Roanne B. Romeroso, Grecebio Jonathan D. Alejandro, Cecilia I. Banag-Moran 2019 A checklist of Rubiaceae species from Eastern Samar, Visayas, Philippines Check List 15 (2): 295–312
  4. Ou, Chern-hsiung 1987 Contributtons to the dicotyledonous plants of Taiwan (X) Bullitin Exper. for NCHU 8 11-30
  5. Puff, C. and K. M. Wong 1993 A synopsis of the genera of Rubiaceae in Borneo Sandakania 2: 13-34
  6. Puff, C., J. Greimler and R. Buchner 1998 Revision of Schradera (Rubiaceae-Schradereae) in Malesia Blumea 43 287-335
  7. Puff, Christian 2001 The Significance of Gynoecium and Fruit and Seed Characters for the Classification of the Rubiaceae Malayan Nature Joumal 55 (1 & 2): 133-146
  8. Puff, Christian & Voradol Chamchumroon 2003 Non–indigenous Rubiaceae grown in Thailand THAI FOR. BULL. (BOT.) 31: 75–94
  9. Puff, Christian 2010 Mycetia (Rubiaceae) from Khao Soi Dao, Chanthaburi Province, SE Thailand: the discovery of a remarkable new species and the true identity of a supposedly endemic species Thai. For. Bull. (Bot.) 38: 173–178
  10. Purwantoto, R. Sibekti, Harry Wiriadinata and Susiani Purbaningsih 2005 Gatra Taksonomi Argostemma Wall. (Rubiaceae-Rubioidae) di Gunung Gede-Pangrango, Gunung Halimun, dan Gunung Salak berdasarkan Karakter Morfologi Biodiveritas 6 (3) 199-204
  11. Rajaseger, G., H. T. W. Tan, I. M. Turner and P. P. Kumar 1997 Analysis of Genetic Diversity among Ixora Cultivars (Rubiaceae) using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Annals of Botany 80: 355–361
  12. Raju, Aluri Jacob Solomon and Janga Radhakrishna 2017 Contribution to the knowledge of three Indian Spermacoce L. (Rubiaceae) and some preliminary information about their pollination ecology Anales de Biología 39: 111-126
  13. Razafimandimbison, Sylvain G. and Birgitta Bremer 2002 Phylogeny and classification of Naucleeae s.l. (Rubiaceae) inferred from molecular (ITS, rBCL, and tRNT-F) and morphological data American Journal of Botany 89(7): 1027-1041
  14. RazaWmandimbison, Sylvain G., Joachim Moog, Henrik Lantz, Ulrich Maschwitz, Birgitta Bremera 2005 Re-assessment of monophyly, evolution of myrmecophytism, and rapid radiation in Neonauclea s.s. (Rubiaceae) Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 34(2): 334–354
  15. Razafimandimbisona, Sylvain G., Timothy D. McDowell, David A. Halfordc, Birgitta Bremerb 2009 Molecular phylogenetics and generic assessment in the tribe Morindeae (Rubiaceae–Rubioideae): How to circumscribe Morinda L. to be monophyletic? Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 52(3) 879-886
  16. Razafimandimbison S. G., Bremer B. 2011 Nomenclatural changes and taxonomic notes in the tribe Morindeae (Rubiaceae) Adansonia sér. 3, 33 (2): 283–309
  17. Razafimandimbison, Sylvain G, Stefan Ekman, Timothy D. McDowell and Birgitta Bremera 2012 Evolution of growth habit, inflorescence architecture, flower size, and fruit type in Rubiaceae: Its ecological and evolutionary implications PLoS ONE 7(7): e40851
  18. Ridsdale, C. E. 1976 A revision of the tribe Cephalantheae (Rubiaceae) Blumea 23 (1): 177–188.
  19. Ridsdale, C.E. (1978). A revision of Mitragyna and Uncaria (Rubiaceae) Blumea 24(1), 43–100
  20. Ridsdale, C. E. 1978 A revision of the Tribe Naucleeae s.s. (Rubiaceae) Blumea 24 307-356
  21. Ridsdale, C. E. 1989 A revision of Neonauclea (Rubiaceae) Blumea 34 (1): 177–275
  22. Ridsdale, C. E. 2008. Thorny problems in the Rubiaceae: Benkara, Fagerlindia and Oxyceros Reinwardtia 12(4):289–298
  23. Robbrecht, Elmar 1988 Tropical woody Rubiaceae Volume 1 National Botanic Garden of Belgium ISBN 90-72619-02-1
  24. Rydin, Catarina, Sylvain G. Razafimandimbison, Anbar Khodabandeh and Birgitta Bremer 2009 Evolutionary relationships in the Spermacoceae alliance (Rubiaceae) using information from six molecular loci: insights into systematic affinities of Neohymenopogon and Mouretia. Taxon 58(3):793-810
  1. Schanzer, Ivan A. 2004 Systematic notes on Ophiorrhiza trichocarpon Blume (Rubiaceae) and some related species THAI FOR. BULL. (BOT.) 32: 132–145
  2. Seah, W. W. and K. M. Wong 2018 Flora of Singapore precursors, 1. Gynochthodes praetermissa (Rubiaceae: Morindeae), a new West Malesian species, with notes on related taxa Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 70 (2): 267–273
  3. Sivadasan, M. and N. Mohanan 1991 Ixora agasthyamalayana, a new species of Rubiaceae from India Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 32(4): 323-316
  4. Sivarajan, V V, R Vasudevan Nair and T U Ahmed Kunju 1987 Genus Spermacoce Linn. (Rubiaceae) in India Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. (Plant Sci.) 97 (4): 347-358
  5. Soza, Valerie L. & Richard G. Olmstead 2010 Molecular systematics of tribe Rubieae (Rubiaceae): Evolution of major clades, development of leaf-like whorls, and biogeography TAXON 59(3) 2010: 755–771
  6. Sridith, Kitichate 1999 A synopsis of the genus Argostemma Wall. (Rubiaceae) in Thailand. Thai. For. Bull. (Bot.) 27 86-137.
  7. Sridith, Kitichate 2007 Notes on the genus Argostemma (Rubiaceae) of the Malay peninsula and peninsular Thailand Blumea 52 367-377
  8. Suratman, S. 2018 The genus Gynochthodes (Rubiaceae) in Sumatra Blumea 62: 230-239
  9. Tange, C. 1994. Neomussaenda (Rubiaceae), a new genus from Borneo Nord J. Bot. 14: 495-500
  10. Tange, Christian 1998 Cyanoneuron (Rubiaceae), a new genus from Borneo and Sulawesi Nord. J. Bot. 18: 147-158
  11. Terrell, Edward E. 1990 Synopsis of Oldenlandia (Rubiaceae) in the United States Phytologia 68(2):125-133
  12. Terrell, Edward E. and Harold Robinson 2009 A new genus, Mexotis, for five mexican species of Hedyotideae (Rubiaceae) J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 3(1): 59–70
  13. Tosh, James, Aaron P. Davis, Steven Dessein, Petra De Block, Suzy Huysmans, Mike F. Fay, Erik Smets, and Elmar Robbrecht 2009 Phylogeny of Tricalysia (Rubiaceae) and its Relationships with Allied Genera Based on Plastid DNA Data: Resurrection of the Genus Empogona Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 96(1):194-213
  14. Tseng, Yen-Hsueh, Chern-Hsiung Ou 1999 Sherardia arvensis L.,A Newly Naturalized Plant in Taiwan Quarterly Journal of Forest Research 21(1) 61-64
  15. Turner, I. M. 2019 Flora of Singapore precursors, 12. Notes on various Rubiaceae genera Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 71 (1): 45–59
  16. Turner, I. M. 2019 Three New Combinations in Eumachia (Rubiaceae-Palicoureeae) from Southeast Asia Edinburgh Journal of Botany 76: 23-27
  17. van Beusekom, C. F. 1967. A revision of the Malesian and Ceylonese species of the genus Gaertnera Lamk. (Rubiaceae) [1] 15 (2):359–391
  18. Wang Ruijiang 2002 Two new species of Spiradiclis (Rubiaceae) from China Novon 12: 420-423
  19. Ward, Daniel B. 2011 Keys to the flora of Florida - 29, Spermacoce (Rubiaceae) Phytologia 93(3):275-282
  20. Watanabe, Kenta and Takashi Sugawara 2015 Is heterostyly rare on oceanic Islands ? AoB PLANTS 1-16
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HedyotisOldenlandia Reference

  1. Alejandro, Grecebio Jonathan D. 2015 A new endemic species of Philippine Hedyotis L. (Rubiaceae) named after Pope Francis The Antoninus Journal 1 74-78
  2. Chen, Shih-Huei, Jian-Yu Su and Ming-Jou Wu 2010 Hedyotis pinifolia Wall. ex G. Don (Rubiaceae), a New Record to the Flora of Taiwan Taiwania 55(1): 86-89, 2010
  3. Florentin, Mariela Nuñez, Andrea Cabaña Fader and Ana Maria Gonzalez 2016 Morpho-anatomical and morphometric studies of the floral structures of the distylous Oldenlandia salzmannii (Rubiaceae) Acta Botanica Brasilica
  4. Fukuoka, Nobuyuki 1970 Contributions to the Flora of Southeast Asia III : Hedyotis (Rubiaceae) of Thailand Tonan Ajia Kenkyu 8(3): 305-336
  5. Guo, Xing, Mark P. Simmons, Paul Pui-Hay But, Pang-Chui Shaw, Rui-Jiang Wang 2011 Application of DNA barcodes in Hedyotis L. (Spermacoceae, Rubiaceae) Journal of Systematics and Evolution 49(3) 203-212
  6. Guo, Xing, Rui-Jiang Wang, Mark P. Simmons, Paul Pui-Hay But, Jing Yu 2013 Phylogeny of the Asian HedyotisOldenlandia complex (Spermacoceae, Rubiaceae): Evidence for high levels of polyphyly and the parallel evolution of diplophragmous capsules Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 67 110–122
  7. Hsu, Tian-Chuan, Zhi-Hao Chen, Shih-Wen Chung 2014 Hedyotis koana Wang (Rubiceae) a Newly Recorded Plant in Taiwan Quarterly Journal of Forest Research 36(3):179-182
  8. Hsu, Tian-Chuan and Zhi-Hao Chen 2017 Scleromitrion sirayanum (Rubiaceae: Spermacoceae), a new species of the Hedyotis-Oldenlandia complex in Taiwan Taiwania 62(2): 151‒156
  9. Huang S. F. and J. Murata. 1987 Hedyotis taiwanense (Rubiaceae) a new species from Taiwan. Taiwania 32: 214-217.
  10. Maxwell J. F. Notes on Thai Hedyotis (Rubiaceae) Thai Science
  11. Neupane, Suman, Steven Dessein, Niklas Wikström, Paul O. Lewis, Chunlin Long, Birgitta Bremer and Timothy J. Motley 2015 The Hedyotis-Oldenlandia complex (Rubiaceae: Spermacoceae) in Asia and the Pacific: Phylogeny revisited with new generic delimitations TAXON 64 (2): 299–322
  12. Sivarajan, V. V., S. D. Biju and Philip Mathew 1993 Taxonomy and Nomenclature of Some Indian Species of Hedyotis (Rubiaceae) Kew Bulletin 48 (2):391
  13. Terrell, Edward E. and Harold Robinson 2010 Taxonomic notes on the genera Stenotis and Carterella (Rubiaceae) and transfer of Hedyotis greenei to Stenotis J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 4(2):619–623.
  14. Wang, Gang-Tao, Ying Zhang, Dan Liang, Yu-Qiang Chen and Rui-Jiang Wang 2018 Hedyotis taishanensis (Rubiaceae): A new species from Guangdong, China Phytotaxa 367 (1): 38-44
  15. Wang, Rui-Jiang 2007 Hedyotis koana R. J. Wang, a new species of Rubiaceae from China Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica 45(5): 696-700
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  17. Wang, Rui-Jiang, Shu-jun Deng, Qi Liao 2014 Nomenclature Clarification of the Traditional Chinese Medicine Baihuasheshecao and Its Adulterants Based on Molecular and Morphological Evidence J. Trop. Subtrop. Bot. 22 (5): 431-442
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  3. 陈雨晴,郭兴,王瑞江 2015 中国耳草属(茜草科)植物新记录种 热带亚热带植物学报 23 (1): 31 ~ 33
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Lasianthus Reference

  1. Cai, Min, Hua Zhu, Hong Wang 2008 Pollen morphology of the genus Lasianthus (Rubiaceae) and related taxa from Asia Journal of Systematics and Evolution 46(1): 62–72
  2. Liu, Tang-Shui and Jew-Ming Chao 1964 Revision of the Taiwan species of Lasianthus (Rubiaceae) Taiwania 10:117-150
  3. Matsumura, J. 1901 Notulæ ad Plantas Asiaticas Orientales (Continued from p. 147.) Bot. Mag. Tokyo 15 (168): 13-17
  4. Matsumura, J. 1901 Notulæ ad Plantas Asiaticas Orientales (Continued from p. 117.) Bot. Mag. Tokyo 15 (169): 37-41
  5. Xiao, Long-Qian and Hua Zhu 2007 Paraphyly and phylogenetic relationships in Lasianthus (Rubiaceae) inferred from chloroplast rps16 data Bot. Stud. 48:227-232
  6. Zhu Hua 1998 Notes on the genus Lasianthus Jack (Rubiaceae) from Asia Acta Botanica Yunnanica 20(2) 149-159
  7. Zhu, Hua 2001 A taxonomic revision of the genus Lasianthus Jack. (Rubiaceae) from Thailand Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica 39(2):116-150
  8. Zhu, Hua 2001 Two new subspecies of Lasianthus inodorus (Rubiaceae) from Kinabalu, Borneo, and their biogeographical implication Blumea 46 447-455
  9. Zhu, Hua 2002 A Revision of the Genus Lasianthus (Rubiaceae) from China Syst. Geog. Pl. 72 (1):63-110
  10. Zhu, H., M. C. Roos, C. E. Ridsdale 2012 A taxonomic revision of the Malesian species of Lasianthus (Rubiaceae) Blumea 57 1-102

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  9. 蔡敏 2008 粗叶木属植物的花粉形态研究 孝感学院学报 28(3) 85-87

Mussaenda Reference

  1. Alejandro, Grecebio D., Sylvain G. Razafimandimbison and Sigrid Liede-Schumann 2005 Polyphyly of Mussaenda inferred from ITS and trnT-F data and its implication for generic limits in Mussaendeae (Rubiaceae) American Journal of Botany 92(3):544-557
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  3. Chantaranothai, Pranom 2015 A synopsis of Mussaenda L. (Rubiaceae) in Thailand Thai For. Bull (Bot.) 43 51-65
  4. Chen, Shi, Zhonglai Luo and Dianxiang Zhang 2014 Pre‐ and post‐zygotic reproductive isolation between co‐occurring Mussaenda pubescens var. alba and M. shikokiana (Rubiaceae) J. Integr. Plant Biol 56 (4): 411–419
  5. Deng, Xiao-Fang and Zhang Dian-Xiang 2006 Three new synonyms in Mussaenda (Rubiaceae) from China Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica 44 (5): 608-611
  6. Duan, Tingting , Xiaofang Deng, Shi Chen, Zhonglai Luo, Zhongtao Zhao, Tieyao Tu, Nguyen Sinh Khang, Sylvain G. Razafimandimbison, Dianxiang Zhang 2018 Evolution of sexual systems and growth habit in Mussaenda (Rubiaceae):Insights into the evolutionary pathways of dioecy Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 123 113–122
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Psychotria Reference

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  2. Moraes, Tarsila Maria da Silva, Guilherme Rodrigues Rabelo, Camilla Ribeiro Alexandrino, Sebastião José da Silva Neto and Maura Da Cunha 2011 Comparative leaf anatomy and micromorphology of Psychotria species (Rubiaceae) from the Atlantic Rainforest Acta Botanica Brasilica 25(1): 178-190
  3. Sugawara, Takashi, Kenta Watanabe and Mitsutake Tabata 2013 Distyly in Psychotria serpens (Rubiaceae) in the Ryukyu Islands, Japan Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 64 (3): 127–136
  4. Sugawara, Takashi, Mayumi Yumoto, Shizuka Tsuneki and Kenta Watanabe 2014 Incompatibility and Reproductive Output in Distylous Psychotria boninensis (Rubiaceae), Endemic to the Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands, Japan J. Jpn. Bot. 89: 22–26
  5. Sugawara, Takashi, Kenta Watanabe, Tokushiro Takaso, Mitsutake Tabata and Akira Shimizu 2016 Incompatibility and Pollination of Distylous Psychotria serpens (Rubiaceae) in the Ryukyu Islands, Japan Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 67 (1): 37–45
  6. Watanabe, Kenta, T Y Aleck Yang, Chihiro Nishihara, Tai-Liang Huang, Koh Nakamura, Ching-I Peng and Takashi Sugawara 2015 Distyly and floral morphology of Psychotria cephalophora (Rubiaceae) on the oceanic Lanyu (Orchid) Island, Taiwan Bot. Stud. 56:10
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Web Link

  1. Department of Botany & the U.S. National Herbarium 2017 The Plant Press vol 20 (2) Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History
  2. International Association for Vegetation Science 2009 Vegetation Processes and Human Impact in a Changing World 52nd INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM
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Books and Journals


  1. Akiyama, Shinobu, Gerard Thijsse, Hans-Joachim Esser, Hideaki Ohba 2015 Siebold and Zuccarini’s Type Specimens and Original Materials from Japan, Part 7. Angiosperms. Dicotyledoneae 6 J. Jap. Bot. 90: 317-341
  2. Arora, R. K. 2014 Diversity in underutilized plant species - an Asia-Pacific perspective Bioversity International
  3. Azan, Shakira Stephanie Elaine 2011 Invasive aquatic plants and the aquarium and ornamental pond industries Theses and dissertations Ryerson University P. 818
  4. Beech, E., M. Rivers, S. Oldfield and P. P. Smith 2017 Global Tree Search: The first complete global database of tree species and country distributions Journal of Sustainable Forestry 36: 5 454-489
  5. Bechtel, Albert Reiff 1921 The Floral Anatomy of the Urticales American Journal of Botany 8 (8): 386-410
  6. Chang, C. S., H. Kim, and K. S. Chang. 2014. Provisional Checklist of Vascular Plants For The Korea Peninsula Flora (KPF). Designpost, Pajo.
  7. Chang, C. S., H. Kim and K. S. Chang. 2015. A Catalogue of Vascular Plant Type Specimens from Korea Designpost, Pajo.
  8. Chang, Ching-en 1981 An Eumeration of the Woody Plants of Botel Tobago J. Phytogeogr. Taxon. 29 (1): 1-21
  9. Chen, Xin, Hai He and Li-Bing Zhang 2015 A monograph of the Anisophylleaceae (Cucurbitales) with description of 18 new species of Anisophyllea Phytotaxa 229 (1):1-189
  10. Chiou, Chyi-Rong, Guo-Zhang Michael Song, Jui-Han Chien, Chang-Fu Hsieh, Jenn Che Wang, Ming-Yih Chen, Ho-Yih Liu, Ching-Long Yeh, Yue-Joe Hsia, and Tze-Ying Chen 2010 Altitudinal distribution patterns of plant species in Taiwan are mainly determined by the northeast monsoon rather than the heat retention mechanism of Massenerhebung Botanical Studies 51: 89-97
  11. Chuang, Tsan-Iang, Chuan-Ying Chao, Wilma W. L. Hu and S. C. Kwan 1962 Chromosome Numbers of the Vascular Plants of Taiwan I Taiwania 5: 51-66
  12. Cornelissen, Johannes H. C., Yao-Bin Song, Fei-Hai, Yu Ming Dong 2014 Plant traits and ecosystem effects of clonality: a new research agenda Annals of Botany 114: 369–376
  13. Dai Chang-Feng et. 2008 The Research of Natural Resources of the Three Northern Islets Taiwanese Coral Feef Society Marine National Park
  14. Devol, Charles E. 1964 Unexpected New Finds on Taiwan Taiwania 10: 151-154
  15. Duke, Norman C., Jock Mackenzie, Apanie Wood 2012 A revision of mangrove plants of the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, Fiji, Tonga and Samoa Tropical Water & Aquatic Ecosystem Research
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  17. Editorial Commitee fo the Flora of Taiwan 1994 Flora of Taiwan, Second edition. Volume one, Detparment of Botany, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 106, the Republic of China, ISBN 957-9019-52-5
  18. Editorial Commitee fo the Flora of Taiwan 1996 Flora of Taiwan, Second edition. Volume Two, Detparment of Botany, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 106, the Republic of China, ISBN 957-9019-92-4
  19. Editorial Commitee fo the Flora of Taiwan 1993 Flora of Taiwan, Second edition. Volume Three, Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 106, the Republic of China, ISBN 957-9019-92-4
  20. Editorial Commitee fo the Flora of Taiwan 1998 Flora of Taiwan, Second edition. Volume Four, Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 106, the Republic of China, ISBN 957-9019-92-4
  21. Editorial Commitee fo the Flora of Taiwan 2000 Flora of Taiwan, Second edition. Volume Five, Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 106, the Republic of China, ISBN 957-9019-92-4
  22. Endress, Peter K. 2010 The evolution of floral biology in basal angiosperms Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 365(1539): 411–421
  23. Endress, Peter K; Lorence, David H 2020 Inflorescence structure in Laurales - stable and flexible patterns International Journal of Plant Sciences 181 (3):267-283
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  25. Fosberg, F. Raymond and Sachet, Marie-Hélène 1980 Systematic Studies of Micronesian Plants Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 1–40
  26. Fridley, Jason D. 2008 Of Asian Forests and European Fields: Eastern U.S. Plant Invasions in a Global Floristic Context PLoS ONE 3 (11):e3630
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  30. Gradstein, S. Robbert, Jürgen Homeier and Dirk Gansert 2008 The Tropical Mountain Forest Patterns and Processes in a Biodiversity Hotspot Biodiversity and Ecology Series 2
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  53. Jarvis, C. E. 2019 Georg Rumphius’ Herbarium Amboinense (1741–1750) as a source of information on Indonesian plants for Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778) Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 71 (Suppl. 2):87-107
  54. Kaufmann, Eva 2003 Southeast Asian Ant-Gardens- Diversity, ecology, ecosystematic significance, and evolution of mutualistic ant-epiphyte associations - Universitätsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg
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  82. Matsumura, J. 1898 Notes on Liukiu and Formosan Plants. (Continued from p. 76.) Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 12 (141): 83-84
  83. Matsumura, J. 1898 Notes on Liukiu and Formosan Plants. (Continued from p. 84.) Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 12 (142): 107-109
  84. Matsumura, J. 1899 Notulæ ad Plantas Asiaticas Orientales. (Continued from p. 123.) Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 13 (154) 131-133
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  90. Mori, Gustavo Maruyama and Tadashi Kajita 2016 Mangrove Conservation Genetics Journal of Integrated Field Science 13: 13-19


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