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Euphorbiaceae Reference

  1. Cardinal-McTeague, Warren M. and Lynn J. Gillespie 2016 Molecular phylogeny and pollen evolution of Euphorbiaceae Tribe Plukenetieae Systematic Botany 41(2)329-347
  2. Chao, Chien-Ti, Po-Hao Chen and Chiu-Mei Wang 2017 Two newly naturalized plant species in Taiwan: Astraea lobata and Merremia umbellata Quarterly Journal of Forest Research 39 (4) 285-294
  3. Croizat, Leon and Hiroshi Hara 1940 Critical notes on some Formosan Euphorbiaceae (I) J. Jap. Bot. 16 (6): 316–326
  4. Davies, Stuart James 2001 Tree mortality and growth in 11 sympatric Macaranga species in Borneo Ecology 82 (4): 920-932
  5. Esser, Hans-Joachim 1994 A partial revision of the Hippomaneae (Euphorbiaceae) in Malesia Blumea 44: 149–215
  6. Esser, Hans-Joachim, Petrer Van Welzen, Tutie Djarwaningsih 1997 A phylogenetic classification of the Malesian Hippomaneae (Euphorbiaceae) Systematic Botany 22 (4): 617-685
  7. Esser, Hans-Joachim, 2002 A revision of Triadica lour. (Euphorbiaceae) Harvard Papers in Botany 7 (1) 17-21
  8. Esser, Hans-Joachim, 2003 Fruit characters in Malesian Euphorbiaceae Telopea 10 (1): 169-177
  9. Hsu, Tsai-Wen, Tzen-Yuh Chiang and Ching-I Peng 2006 Croton bonplandianus Baillon (Euphorbiaceae), a Plant Newly Naturalized to Taiwan ESRI 8(1)︰77-82
  10. Kurosawa, Takahide 2006 The family Euphorbiaceae S. L. in Nepal a checklist and taxonomical notes Univ. Mus., Univ. Tokyo Bull. 42 155-367
  11. Park, Ki-Ryong and Anders Backlund 2002 Origin of the cyathium-bearing Euphorbieae (Euphorbiaceae): phylogenetic study based on morphological characters Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 43(1): 57-62
  12. Ramana, Munigela Venkat, potharaju Venu and Munivenkatappa Sanjappa 2015 On Roxburgh's Gelonium bifarium (Euphorbiaceae) from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India Phytotaxa 221(2) 181–187
  13. Sandhya., S, Chaintanya R. S. N. A. K. K, Vinod K. R1 , K. N. V Rao, David Banji, Sudhakar K, Swetha R 2012 An updated review on the Genus Glochidion Plant Scholars Research Library 2 (2):309-322
  14. Sierra, S. E. C. and Peter C. van Welzen 2005 A taxonomic revision of Mallotus section Mallotus (Euphorbiaceae) in Malesia Blumea 50: 249 – 274
  15. Sierra, S. E. C., M. Aparicio, M. J. H. Gebraad, K. K. M. Kulju and P. C. Van Welzen 2007 The morphological range in mallotus (Euphorbiaceae) and a taxonomic revision of its section Rottleropsis (including Axenfeldia) in Malesia, Thailand and Africa Blume 52 21-113
  16. Slik, J. W. F. and P. C. van Welzen 2001 A taxonomic revision of Mallotus sections Hancea and Stylanthus (Euphorbiaceae) Blume 46 3-66
  17. Thakur, H. A. and D. A. Patil 2011 Taxonomic and Phylogenetic Assessment of the Euphorbiaceae: A Review Journal of Experimental Sciences 2(3): 37-46
  18. Wurdack, Kenneth J., Petra Hoffmann, Rosabelle Samuel, Anette de Bruijn, Michelle van der Bank, Mark W. Chase. 2004 Molecular phylogenetic analysis of Phyllanthaceae (Phyllanthoideae pro parte, Euphorbiaceae sensu lato) using plastid RBCL DNA sequences Am J Bot. 91(11): 1882-1900
  19. Wurdack, Kenneth J., Petra Hoffmann and Mark W. Chase 2005 Molecular phylogenetic analysis of uniovulate Euphorbiaceae (Euphorbiaceae sensu stricto) using plastid RBCL and TRNL-F DNA sequences Am. J. Bot. 92 :8 1397-1420
  20. van Welzen, Peter C. 1995 Taxonomy and phylogeny of the Euphorbiaceae tribe Erismantheae G. L. Webster (Erismanthus, Moultonianthus, and Syndyophyllum) Blumea 40 375-396
  21. van Welzen, Peter C. 2003 Revision of the Malesian and Thai species of Sauropus (Euphorbiaceae: Phyllanthoideae) Blumea 48(2) 319-391

Acalypha Reference

  1. Cardinal-McTeague, Warren M. and Lynn J. Gillespie 2016 Molecular phylogeny and pollen evolution of Euphorbiaceae Tribe Plukenetieae Systematic Botany 41(2)329-347
  2. Chen, Shih-Huei, Jian-Yu Su and Ming-Jou Wu 2009 Notes on Two Newly Naturalized Plants in Taiwan: Evolvulus nummularius (L.) L. (Convolvulaceae) and Acalypha aristata Kunth (Euphorbiaceae) Taiwania 54(3): 273-278
  3. Huang, Shing-Fan and Tseng-Chieng Huang 1991 Notes on the Flora of Taiwan (10)—Acalypha brachystachya Hornem. and its related species (Euphorbiaceae) Taiwania 36:80-84
  4. Liu, Yeh-Ching, Chern-Hsiung Ou 1982 Contributions to the Dicotyledonous Plants of Taiwan (Ⅶ) Bullitin Exper. For. NCHU 4: 1-16 / Rosa sambusiana var. whshanianaMucuna tiawanianaPassiflora foetida var. tainanianaBegonia lukuanaAbutilon grandifoliumAbutilon hirtumSida javensis ssp. expilosaNicotiana alataDesmodium tortuosumAcalypha indica
  5. Sagun, Vernie G. & Geoffrey A. Levin 2007 Four new species of Acalypha (Euphorbiaceae) from Malesia BLUMEA 52: 351–359
  6. Sagun, V. G., G.A. Levin, P. C. van Welzen 2010 Revision and phylogeny of Acalypha (Euphorbiaceae) in Malesia Blumea 55: 21–60

Euphorbia Reference

  1. Bhellum, B. L. and Rani Magotra 2012 Flora of Outer Hills of Kashmir Himalayas (Jammu and Kashmir State) – Genus Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications 2 (4) 1-3
  2. Cacho, N. Ivalú, Paul E. Berry, Mark E. Olson, Victor W. Steinmann, David A. Baum 2010 Are spurred cyathia a key innovation? Molecular systematics and trait evolution in the slipper spurges (Pedilanthus clade: Euphorbia, Euphorbiaceae) American Journal of Botany 97(3) 493-510
  3. Chen, Shih-Huei and Ming-Jou Wu 2004 Chamaesyce hypericifolia (L.) Millsp., A Newly Naturalized Spurge Species in Taiwan Taiwania 49(2): 102-108
  4. Lin, Shu-Chien, Shu-Miaw Chaw and Chang-Fu Hsieh 1991 A taxonomic study of the genus Chamaesyce S. F. Gray(Euphorbiaceae) in Taiwan Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 32:215-251
  5. Lin, Shu-Chien and Chang-Fu Hsieh 1991 A Taxonomic Study of the Genus Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae) in Taiwan. Taiwania 36(1) 56-79
  6. Wärner, Christina, Erik Welk, Walter Durkac, Burghard Wittiga, Martin Diekmanna 2011 Biological Flora of Central Europe: Euphorbia palustris L. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 13 55–69
  7. Yang, Sheng-Zehn, Chien-Fan Chen, Kun-Ping Lo, Guang-Pu Hsieh 2005 Euphorbia graminea Jacquin (Euphorbiaceae), A Newly Naturalized Plant in Taiwan Taiwania 50(2):131-136

  1. 薛恒钢、周颂东、何兴金、余岩 2007 中国大戟属13种15个居群的核型报道 植物分类学报 45(5) 619–626


Web Link

  1. Department of Botany & the U.S. National Herbarium 2017 The Plant Press vol 20 (2) Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History
  2. International Association for Vegetation Science 2009 Vegetation Processes and Human Impact in a Changing World 52nd INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM
  3. 17th International Workshop European Vegetation Survey 2008 Using phytosociological data to address ecological questions Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic
  4. Gilly, Charles Louis 1950 Phylogenetic development of the inflorescence and generic relationships in the Kobresiaceae Retrospective Theses and Dissertations 13679.

Books and Journals


  1. Arora, R. K. 2014 Diversity in underutilized plant species - an Asia-Pacific perspective Bioversity International
  2. Azan, Shakira Stephanie Elaine 2011Invasive aquatic plants and the aquarium and ornamental pond industries Theses and dissertations Ryerson University P. 818
  3. Beech, E., M. Rivers, S. Oldfield and P. P. Smith 2017 GlobalTreeSearch: The first complete global database of tree species and country distributions Journal of Sustainable Forestry 36: 5 454-489
  4. Chen, Xin, Hai He and Li-Bing Zhang 2015 A monograph of the Anisophylleaceae (Cucurbitales) with description of 18 new species of Anisophyllea Phytotaxa 229 (1):1-189
  5. Chiou, Chyi-Rong, Guo-Zhang Michael Song, Jui-Han Chien, Chang-Fu Hsieh, Jenn Che Wang, Ming-Yih Chen, Ho-Yih Liu, Ching-Long Yeh, Yue-Joe Hsia, and Tze-Ying Chen 2010 Altitudinal distribution patterns of plant species in Taiwan are mainly determined by the northeast monsoon rather than the heat retention mechanism of Massenerhebung Botanical Studies 51: 89-97
  6. Cornelissen, Johannes H. C., Yao-Bin Song, Fei-Hai, Yu Ming Dong 2014 Plant traits and ecosystem effects of clonality: a new research agenda Annals of Botany 114: 369–376
  7. Dai Chang-Feng et. 2008 The Research of Natural Resources of the Three Northern Islets Taiwanese Coral Feef Society Marine National Park
  8. Duke, Norman C., Jock Mackenzie, Apanie Wood 2012 A revision of mangrove plants of the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, Fiji, Tonga and Samoa Tropical Water & Aquatic Ecosystem Research
  9. Eckert, Christopher G. 1999 Clonal plant research: proliferation, integration, but not much evolution Am. J. Bot. 86(11) 1649-1654
  10. Editorial Commitee fo the Flora of Taiwan 1994 Flora of Taiwan, Second edition. Volume one, Detparment of Botany, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 106, the Republic of China, ISBN 957-9019-52-5
  11. Editorial Commitee fo the Flora of Taiwan 1996 Flora of Taiwan, Second edition. Volume Two, Detparment of Botany, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 106, the Republic of China, ISBN 957-9019-92-4
  12. Editorial Commitee fo the Flora of Taiwan 1993 Flora of Taiwan, Second edition. Volume Three, Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 106, the Republic of China, ISBN 957-9019-92-4
  13. Editorial Commitee fo the Flora of Taiwan 1998 Flora of Taiwan, Second edition. Volume Four, Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 106, the Republic of China, ISBN 957-9019-92-4
  14. Editorial Commitee fo the Flora of Taiwan 2000 Flora of Taiwan, Second edition. Volume Five, Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 106, the Republic of China, ISBN 957-9019-92-4
  15. Endress, Peter K. 2010 The evolution of floral biology in basal angiosperms Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 365(1539): 411–421
  16. Gradstein, S. Robbert, Jürgen Homeier and Dirk Gansert 2008 The Tropical Mountain Forest Patterns and Processes in a Biodiversity Hotspot Biodiversity and Ecology Series 2
  17. Giesen, Wim Stephan Wulffraat, Max Zieren and Liesbeth Scholten 2006 Mangrove Guidebook for Southeast Asia FAO and Wetlands International ISBN: 974-7946-85-8
  18. Grande, J. R., J. Kallunki, M. M. Arbo, P. E. Berry, O. Huber and R. Riina 2012 Botanical novelties from Sierra de Maigualida, southern Venezuela II. Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 69(1): 7-19
  19. Herben, Tomáš, Zuzana Nováková, Jitka Klimešová 2014 Clonal growth and plant species abundance Annals of Botany 114: 377–388
  20. Hsieh, Chang-Fu 1989 Structure and Floristic Composition of the Beech Forest in Taiwan Taiwania 34(1) 28-44
  21. Kaufmann, Eva 2003 Southeast Asian Ant-Gardens- Diversity, ecology, ecosystematic significance, and evolution of mutualistic ant-epiphyte associations - Universitätsbibliothek Johann Christian Senckenberg
  22. Keng, Hsuan 1973 Nomenclatural Notes on Wu P'I Ch'a or the Black-barked Tea Plant Taiwania 18(1) 55-56
  23. Kitamura 1941 An Enureration of Compositae of Formosa Acta phytotaxonomica et geobotanica 10(1) 15-33
  24. Klimešová, Jitka, Jiří Doležal and Marek Sammul 2011 Evolutionary and organismic constraints on the relationship between spacer length and environmental conditions in clonal plants Oikos 120: 1110–1120
  25. Kron, Kathleen A. 1996 Phylogenetic Relationships of Empetraceae, Epacridaceae, Ericaceae, Monotropaceae, and Pyrolaceae: Evidence from Nuclear Ribosomal 18s Sequence Data Ann. Bot. 77(4): 293-303
  26. Kuoh, Chang-Sheng, Gow-Ing Liao and Ming-Yih Chen 1999 Two New Naturalized Grasses in Taiwan. Taiwania 44(4) 514-519
  27. Kuoh, Chang-Sheng and Chih-Hui Chen 2000 New Naturalized Grasses in Taiwan. Taiwania 45(4) 328-333
  28. Liu, Y. C. and C. H. Ou 1974 New additions to the flora of Taiwan. Quarterly journal of Chinese forestry 7(4): 150-151.
  29. Löve, Áskell and Ebba Kjellqvist 1974 Cytotaxonomy of Spanish plants. III Dicotyledons: Salicaceae-Rosaceae Lagascalia 4(1): 3-32


  1. Ma, Jin-Shuang 2010 Nomenclatural notes on alien vascular plants in north american originated from east asia Acta Botanica Yunnanica 32(1): 14-24
  2. Nandi, Owi I., Mark W. Chase and Peter K. Endress 1998 A Combined Cladistic Analysis of Angiosperms Using rbcL and Non-Molecular Data Sets Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 85 (1) 137-214
  3. Newman, Mark,Sounthone Ketphanh, Bouakhaykhone Svengsuksa, Philip Thomas, Khamphone Sengdala, Vichith Lamxay, Kate Armstrong 2007 A Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Lao PDR Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh ISBN 978-1-906129-04-0
  4. Ohashi, Hiroyoshi 2009 Bunzo Hayata and His Contributions to the Flora of Taiwan. Taiwania 54(1) 1-27
  5. Peng, Ching-I 1978 Some new records for the Flora of Taiwan Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 19(1) 83-86
  6. Peng Ching-I, Shiou-Fen Yen and Ji-Yui Guo 1986 Notes on the Chromosome Cytology of Some Rare, Threatened, or Endangered Plants of Taiwan (I) Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 27(2): 219-235
  7. Qiu, Yin-Long, Olena Dombrovska, Jungho Lee, Libo Li, Barbara A. Whitlock, Fabiana Bernasconi-Quadroni, Joshua S. Rest, et al. 2005. Phylogenetic analyses of basal angiosperms based on nine plastid, mitochondrial, and nuclear genes. International Journal of Plant Sciences 166(5): 815-842.
  8. Severinghaus, Sheldon and Charles E. DeVol 1974 Note on the distribution of Taiwan Beech Taiwania 19(2) 235-237
  9. Shaheen, Hamayun, Shujaul Mulk Khan, David M. Harper, Zahid Ullah, and Rizwana Allem Qureshi 2011 Species Diversity, Community Structure, and Distribution Patterns in Western Himalayan Alpine Pastures of Kashmir, Pakistan Mountain Research and Development 31(2):153-159
  10. Shi, Suhua,Yaqing Du,D. E. Boufford, Xun Gong, Yelin Huang, Hanghang He & Yang Zhong 2003 Phylogenetic position of Schnabelia, a genus endemic to China: Evidence from sequences of cpDNA matK gene and nrDNA ITS regions Chinese Science Bulletin 48(15) 1576-1580
  11. Shisode, S. B. and D. A. Patil 2011 Taxonomic and phylogenetic census of the Celastrales: A synthetic review Curr. Bot. 2(4): 36-43
  12. Sosnová, Monika, Rudyvan Diggelen, Jitka Klimešová 2010 Distribution of clonal growth forms in wetlands Aquatic Botany 92(1) 33-39
  13. Starr, Forest, Kim Starr, and Lloyd L. Loope 2010 New plant records from the Hawaiian Archipelago Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 107:61-68
  14. Steinmanna, K., H. P. Linder, N. E. Zimmermanna 2009 Modelling plant species richness using functional groups Ecological Modelling 220 962-967
  15. Su, Horng-Jye 2000 Contribution to a revised orchid flora of Taiwan (IV). Taiwania 45(3) 239-248
  16. Tamura, Minoru N., Shingchi Chen and Nicholas J. Turland 2000 A New Combination in Heteropolygonatum (Convallariaceae, Polygonateae) NOVON 10(2): 156-157
  17. Thaman, R. R. and Malosi Samuelu 2016 Vascular Plants, vegetation and ethnobotany of Banaba (Ocean island), Republic of Kiribati Atoll Research Bulletin No. 609
  18. Turner, I. M., Y. W. Low, M. Rodda, K. M. Wong and D. J. Middleton 2018 The plant taxa of H. N. Ridley, 5. The Gentianales Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 70 (2): 307–395
  19. Van der Vossen, H. A. M. and M. Wessel 2000 Plant Resources of South-East Asia Stimulants 16 ISBN 90-5782-053-6
  20. Von Lampe, Maud, Gerd Jünger and Ssabine Tischew 2002 Morphological features of herbaceous perennials causing abundance in lignite mining areas
  21. Wu Ding, Hong Wang,Jin-Mei Lu, De-Zhu Li 2005 Comparative morphology of leaf epidermis in Parnassia (Parnassiaceae) from China Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica 43(3): 210–224
  22. Wu, S.-H., C.-H. Hsieh and M. Rejmánek. 2004b. Catalogue of the naturalized flora of Taiwan. Taiwania 49: 16-31.
  23. Wu, Shan-Huah, T. Y. Aleck Yang, Yung-Ching Teng, Chih-Yuan Chang, Kuoh-Cheng Yang and Chang-Fu Hsieh 2010 Insights of the Latest Naturalized Flora of Taiwan : Change in the Past Eight Years Taiwania 55(2): 139-159
  24. Yamashita, Jun and Minoru N. Tamura 2001 Karyotype analysis of two species of the Chinese epiphytic genus Heteropolygonatum (Convallariaceae-Polygonateae) Acta Phytotax Geobot. 51 (2): 147-153
  25. Yang, Y.-P., H.-Y. Liu and S.-Y. Lu. 1997. Concise vascular flora of Taiwan. 2: 352. Council of Agriculture, Taiwan.
  26. Yang, Y.-P., H.-Y. Liu, S.-Y. Lu and B.-L. Shih. 1998. Concise vascular flora of Taiwan. 3: 392. Council of Agriculture, Taiwan.
  27. Yang, Y.-P., H.-Y. Liu, S.-Y. Lu and B.-L. Shih. 1999. Concise vascular flora of Taiwan. 4: 432. Council of Agriculture, Taiwan.
  28. Yang, Y.-P., H.-Y. Liu and T.-P. Lin. 2001. Concise vascular flora of Taiwan. 5: 457. Council of Agriculture, Taiwan.
  29. Yang, Yuen-Po and Ho-Yih Liu 2002 Nomenclature Changes for Some Dicots of Taiwan Taiwania 47(2) 175-178
  30. Yang, Yuen-Po, Chun-kuei Liao, Mo-shih Tang, Chih-Kai Yang, Chiou-Yu Yeh 2009 Family and genus flora of Taiwan seed plants. Forestry Bureau, The Council of Agriculture, The Executive Yuan, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China ISBN 978-986-02-2316-3
  31. Yong, Jean W H, Chiou-Rong Sheue 2014 A Comparative Guide to the Asian Mangroves